Springer Science Business Media LLC Landes Bioscience

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC Landes Bioscience Copyright 2009 Landes Bioscience and Springer SciencefBusiness Media, LLC All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a...

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Of S. agalactiae pan-genome size (the set of genes that will be observed at least once if an infinite number of different strains would to be sequenced), corresponding to 2713 genes, of which 907 belong to the dispensable genome and also allowed the prediction that the pan-genome is going to grow about 33 new genes every time a new strain is sequenced. This profile is completely different of those observed for other microorganisms, such as Bacillus antbracis. Eight genome sequences were...

Introduction

The human herpesviruses are an important family of viruses, which become established in various tissues for the life of the host.1-2 Herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a complex human neurotrophic virus that after initial infection and lytic multiplication at the body periphery, generally at oral or genital epithelial cells, enters in sensory nerve endings innervating the site of multiplication and it is retrograde transported to the nucleus of sensory neurons.3,4 The genome is a linear double...

Mdx 1388

C. difficile toxins Type A-botulinum neurotoxin toxin-producing shiga-like toxin II (SLT II) B. anthracis protective antigen human TNFa Heteropolymer chemically I linked mAb Medarex, University of Massachusetts Medical School Medarex, MBL ImmuCell XOMA C. difficile infections C. difficile infections Biological agents used in bioterrorism Abbott GmbH & Co. septic shock KG Data were collected from the Adis R& D Insight database and homepages of listed companies in July 2006 using the world...

HS Vl Genome and HSVDerived Vectors

The complete knowledge of the HSV sequences and progress of molecular techniques has leaded to the development of HSV as a vector for several potential applications in human health.1519 These include (i) delivery and expression of human genes to the nervous system cells,20,21 (ii) selective destruction of cancer cells,22J3 (iii) prophylaxis and immunotherapy against tumors 24,25 and (iv) prophylaxis against infections with HSV and other infectious diseases.27 In the viral genome there are...

Conotoxin Venom Peptide Therapeutics

Venom peptides offer enormous opportunity for the discovery of peptide drug leads. This review fbcusses on the potential of cone snails that have developed arrays of small peptides as part of highly evolved venoms used for prey capture and defence. Many ofthese peptides selectively modulate ion channels and transporters, making them a valuable source of new ligands for studying the role these targets play in normal and disease physiology. A number of these cono-peptides reduce pain in animals...

Drug Discovery Evolution

The time frame between the initial discovery of a potential drug candidate and the market launch of a new therapeutic agent usually is 10-14 years (Fig. 1). For this reason it is difficult to measure the real trend in the drug discovery programs during the last two decades. However, the worldwide pharmaceutical natural product patents trend show a decline from 1990 to 1999 and a recent increase of patenting up to 2001 The interest in discover new natural products declined when new technologies...

Shark Novel Antigen Receptors Hie Next Generation of Biologic Therapeutics

Gill and Keith Charlton Abstract Over recent decades we have witnessed a revolution in health care as new classes of therapeutics based on natural biological molecules have become available to medical practitioners. These promised to target some of the most serious conditions that had previously evaded traditional small molecule drugs, such as cancers and to alleviate many of the concerns of patients and doctors alike regarding adverse side effects and impaired...