K-acetylation has emerged as a fundamental regulatory mechanism that occurs in diverse organisms from bacteria to humans. The newly revealed K-acetylomes have provided ample opportunities to elucidate different roles that this modification plays in various cellular processes. The acetyltransferases, deacetylases, and AcK-recognizing protein modules play important roles in these processes and are intimately linked to human health and diseases. As a result, these proteins are important drug targets for developing novel therapeutics, and AcK modulation is also an effective means to improve the generation of cell reprogramming protocols important in individualized medicine.

Acknowledgments This work was supported by operating grants from MDEIE (Developpement economique, innovation et exportation) Quebec, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and Canadian Cancer Society (to X.-J.Y.).

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