Human Cancers

10 Leukemias and Lymphomas 219

10.1 Common properties of hematological cancers 221

10.2 Genetic aberrations in leukemias and lymphomas 223

10.3 Molecular biology of Burkitt lymphoma 226

10.4 Molecular biology of CML 232

10.5 Molecular biology of PML 237

Further reading 242

11 Wilms Tumor (nephroblastoma) 243

11.1 Histology, etiology and clinical behavior of Wilms tumors 244

11.2 Genetics of Wilms tumors and the WT1 gene 246

11.3 Epigenetics of Wilms tumors and the 'WT2' locus 250

11.4 Towards an improved classification of Wilms tumors 252

Further reading 253

12 Cancers of the skin 255

12.1 Carcinogenesis in the skin 256

12.2 Squamous cell carcinoma 260

12.3 Basal Cell Carcinoma 262

12.4 Melanoma 266

12.5 Tumor antigens 269

Further reading 270

13 Colon Cancer 271

13. 1 Natural history of colorectal cancer 272

13.2 Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli and the WNT pathway 273

13.3 Progression of Colon Cancer and the Multi-Step Model of Tumorigenesis 280

13.4 Hereditary nonpolyposis colon carcinoma 282

13.5 Genomic instability in colon carcinoma 284

13.6 Inflammation and colon cancer 285

Further reading 287

Box 13.1 Positional cloning of tumor suppressor genes in hereditary cancers .288

14 Bladder Cancer 289

14.1 Histology and etiology of bladder cancer 290

14.2 Molecular alterations in invasive bladder cancers 297

14.3 Molecular alterations in papillary bladder cancers 302

14.4 A comparison of bladder cancer subtypes 304

Further reading 305

Box 14.1: Tumor suppressor candidates at 9q in bladder cancer 306

15 Renal Cell Carcinoma 307

15.1 The diversity of renal cancers 308

15.2 Cytogenetics of renal cell carcinomas 310

15.3 Molecular biology of inherited kidney cancers 311

15.4 Von-Hippel-Lindau syndrome and renal carcinoma 316

15.5 Molecular biology of clear cell renal carcinoma 321

15.6 Chemotherapy and immunotherapy of renal carcinomas 324

Further reading 326

16 Liver Cancer 327

16.1 Etiology of liver cancer 328

16.2 Genetic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma 331

16.3 Viruses in HCC 336

Further reading 339

Box 16.1 Hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental animals 340

17 Stomach Cancer 341

17.1 Etiology of stomach cancer 342

17.2 Molecular mechanisms in gastric cancer 345

17.3 Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer 348

Further reading 354

Box 17.1: Barrett esophagus and esophageal cancer 355

18 Breast Cancer 357

18.1 Breast biology 358

18.2 Etiology of breast cancer 364

18.3 Hereditary breast cancer 365

18.4 Estrogen receptors andERBBproteins in breast cancer 373

18.5 Classification of breast cancers 378

Further reading: 382

19 Prostate Cancer 383

19.1 Epidemiology of prostate cancer 384

19.2 Androgens in prostate cancer 389

19.3 Genetics and epigenetics of prostate cancer 394

19.4 Tumor-stroma interactions in prostate cancer 398

Further reading 402

PART III - PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND THERAPY

20 Cancer Prevention 403

20.1 The importance of cancer prevention 403

20.2 Primary prevention 404

20.3 Cancer prevention and diet 408

20.4 Prevention of cancers in groups at high risk 415

20.5 Prevention ofprostate cancer by screening the aging male population 420

20.6 Other types of prevention 423

Further reading 426

21 Cancer Diagnosis 427

21.1 The evolving scope of molecular diagnostics 427

21.2 Molecular diagnosis of hematological cancers 429

21.3 Molecular detection of carcinomas 433

21.4 Molecular classification of carcinomas 439

21.5 Prospects of molecular diagnostics in the age of individualized therapy.. 442 Further reading 447

22 Cancer Therapy 449

22.1 Limitations of current cancer therapies 449

22.2 Molecular mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy 450

22.3 Principles of targeted drug therapy 459

22.4 Examples of new target-directed drug therapies 464

22.5 New concepts in cancer therapy: Immunotherapy 475

22.6New concepts in cancer therapy: Gene therapy 479

22.7 The future of cancer therapy 486

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