References

The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 330, 1029-1035. Altschul, R. (1946) Experimental cholesterol arteriosclerosis. Changes produced in skeletal muscle. Archives of Pathology 42, 277-284. Anitschkow, N. (1913) ber die veranderung der kaninchenaorta by experimenteller cholesterinsteatose. Beitrage zur Patholischen Anatomie...

CoQ10 in heart disease

Patients with more severe cardiac disease show lower cardiac levels of CoQ10 when compared to patients with less severe disease (Mortensen et al., 1984). Decreased CoQ10 in myocardial tissue and in plasma has been reported in patients with heart failure as well as in general cardiac patients (Littarru et al., 1972). This suggests that there is an impairment of CoQ10 synthesis or accelerated catabolism or both. The ubiquinol ubiquinone ratio as a marker for oxidative stress in CHD has also been...

Observational studies of fruit and vegetable intake

A number of studies of people who eat a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, and therefore rich in antioxidant nutrients, have tried to test the hypothesis that fruit and vegetables lower the risk of CHD (Phillips et al., 1980 Chang-Claude et al., 1992 Thorogood et al., 1994 Key et al., 1996). In general, observational studies of vegetarians and those with diets rich in fruits and vegetables support the hypothesis that such diets might lower the risk of CHD. Vegetarians generally have high...

Closed trials

This section summarizes five large-scale, randomized trials for which accrual has been either completed or closed and results reported long-term follow-up is continuing for these trials to determine safety as well as efficacy (Omenn et al., 1996a). The Linxian Trials, conducted by the NCI in collaboration with the Cancer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, were two randomized, double-blind chemoprevention trials designed to determine whether daily ingestion of vitamin mineral...

Isoprostanes as Oxidative Markers in Degenerative Diseases

Free radical-mediated tissue damage has been implicated in a wide variety of degenerative diseases. The exposed double bonds of the PUFA of cell membrane phospholipids are particularly susceptible to attack by free radicals. Increased isoprostane levels have been reported in a wide variety of disorders, from scleroderma (Stein et al., 1996) to cystic fibrosis (Collins et al., unpublished observations) and hepatorenal syndrome (Morrow et al., 1993). High levels of free radicals found at a site...

Cigarette Smokers

This experimental model related to cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers (Hulea et al., 1995). Smokers generally had a higher plasma lipid peroxide concentration (TBAR) but a lower total antioxidant capacity (Table 14.5). This was significant at ages 46-80 (groups C and D). These subjects had smoked at least 12 cigarettes per day for more than 2 years. It was shown in an in vitro study (Mahfouz et al., 1995) that smoking increased the concentration of lipid peroxides. We used the...

Antioxidants from herbs and spices

The consumption of herbs and spices, which is a feature of many dietary practices world-wide, makes a significant contribution to the intake of phytochemicals with biological action (Huang et al., 1994 Plumb et al., 1995). Numerous spices have been shown to exert biological effects by modulating arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet aggregation (Table Table 15.2. Isoflavone content (mg 100 g 1) in traditional and commercial soy items. Adapted from Samman et al. (1996). Table 15.2. Isoflavone...

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstructive airway disorder characterized by a gradually progressive and irreversible decrease in forced expiratory volume (FEVj) (Siafakas et al., 1995). The condition usually arises due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema and the airflow obstruction may be accompanied by airway hyperreactivity. Asthma is generally differentiated from COPD, although distinguishing the two in a patient who smokes and has allergies can be difficult. This decrease...