Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
Essentials of human physiology for pharmacy by Laurie J. Kelly p. cm. (CRC Press pharmacy education series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-56676-997-3 (alk. paper) 1. Human physiology. 2.Pharmacy. I. Title. II. Series. DNLM 1. Physiological Processes. 2. Pharmaceutical Preparations. 3. Pharmacy methods. QT 4 K29e 2004 QP34.5K45 2004
It is now clear that nitric oxide and related chemical species are ubiquitous molecules that play crucial roles in human physiology. Nitric oxide (NO), which is synthesized in most tissues, is diffusible and can take on several chemical forms, each of which has its own reactive specificity. The major chemical modification produced by these species is nitrosylation of the target, generally a protein iron or thiol. The direct interaction of nitric oxide with the protein target may result in activation, inactivation, or switching of protein function and subsequent modulation of gene expression. Some physiological events regulated by this type of signaling include vasodilation, cytotoxicity, inflammation, and synaptic plasticity. The mechanistic understanding of nitric oxide-triggered signaling will likely have far-reaching clinical implications, especially in understanding and combating artherosclerosis and inflammation. This chapter provides an overview of the interaction of various...
Anatomically, the lung is a series of bifurcating tubes, which begin at the trachea, divide into the main bronchii, the conducting bronchioles, and conclude in the terminal bronchioles and the alveoli, as shown in Figure 1. Casts of the upper airways have been constructed in an attempt to predict aerosol deposition in the lungs. From these casts, a number of anatomical models have been constructed, the most notable assuming symmetrical (12) and asymmetrical (13) branching. Figure 2 illustrates the Weibel symmetrical branching model of the lung. The average lengths, cross-sectional areas, and linear velocities achieved at various locations in the lungs were estimated early in the last century (14), and some examples are shown in Table 1.
This chapter contains information that is generic to the management of all people with acute musculoskeletal pain
Anatomical models facilitate visual perception and the appreciation of spatial relationships. They are particularly useful for demonstrating the location of body parts affected by pain, what the cause of pain might be, and how the plan of management can be designed to promote recovery.
Human physiology and the likelihood that animal models are limited in their relationship to the actual human disease. This is certainly the case in areas where years of research have yet to yield improved treatments. In animal models of stroke, the species, experimental protocol, and timing of NCE administration have little resemblance to what occurs in humans and how the condition is treated (Hall, 2007 O'Collins et al., 2006).
The catecholamine norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is a neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, and as such is important in the regulation of the general degree of alertness, and is pivotal in preparing the body for either fight or flight. In the brain, noradrenergic cell bodies are found in the locus coereleus where the highest NET densities are also found. Lower densities are found in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and neocortex. In general, NET density is much lower than that of the other monoamine transporters such as DAT and SERT. Norepinephrine is very much involved in human physiology, such as mood regulation, sleep regulation, and in several behavioral aspects. It also plays an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. The CNS effects are mediated by the noradrenergic signaling system found throughout the brain, with several different receptor types (a- and -adrenoceptors, divided into several subtypes) as well as the presynaptically located NETs 13 ....
Finally, we must be honest and admit that our focus on candidate gene studies arises primarily because we are also molecular biologists, fascinated with the structural organization and regulation of the transporters we research. Efforts we make to identify transporter contributions to specific behaviors or disorders also have the opportunity to shed light on how transporters are synthesized, localized, or fine-tuned to meet the needs of chemical signaling. It would do little for our immediate research programs to uncover variants in other genes, unless we could relate these directly to the molecules that establish our frame of reference. There are many open questions in transporter biology, and information gleaned from functional studies in vivo may be pivotal to providing new leads. There are more than 12,000 possible variations in the SERT protein that could be established through site-directed mutagenesis of cloned cDNAs. Although more than a hundred such mutations have been made...
The CHRM3 gene was associated with the susceptibility for post-operative nausea and vomiting (Janicky et al. 2011). Thus, despite the prominent function of CHRM3 in human physiology, particularly in the airways and the bladder (Michel and Parra 2008) and the large number of polymorphisms reported for this receptor subtype, no consistent evidence for a pathophysiological relevance of these variations has been reported.
The central role of GPCRs in human physiology and their diversity of function have made the GPCR family one of the prime targets for drug discovery. Many GPCRs have discrete biological roles indicating that drugs targeting those proteins are likely to produce specific therapeutic effects. Importantly, the pharmaceutical industry has been highly successful over the years in developing GPCR-directed drugs that provide good therapeutics able to treat diseases and disorders for which there are few alternatives.
Histamine or j-imidazolylethylamine is synthesized from l-histidine by histidine decarboxylase, an enzyme that is expressed in many mammalian tissues including gastric-mucosa parietal cells, mast cells, and basophils and the central nervous system (CNS).1 As a result, histamine plays an important role in human physiology including regulation of the cardiovascular system, smooth muscle, exocrine glands, the immune system, and central nerve function. It is also involved in embryonic development, the proliferation and differentiation of cells, hematopoiesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Histamine exerts its diverse biologic effects through four types of receptors. The involvement of histamine in the mediation of immune and hypersensitivity reactions and the regulation of gastric acid secretion has led to the development of important drug classes useful in the treatment of symptoms associated with allergic and gastric hypersecretory disorders.
This chapter describes the role human proteins, enzymes, and peptides play in regulating the mammalian system. It supports the fact that proteins play a critical role in the mechanisms of molecular biology and the role cellular components play in human physiology. This, in turn, not only serves in the development of natural proteins as therapeutic agents, but also in the development of novel synthetic congeners and genetic derivatives. For pharmacists to be good practitioners, it is necessary that they understand how proteins influence normal physiological function as well as to how they can be used in manipulating diseases.
This drawing of a hypothetical reticular network is reproduced from reference 1 with the permission of author Larry Swanson. There are no synapses nerve cells are shown in direct continuity with muscle cells as well as other nerve cells. He reproduced it from an original in Landois and Sterling's Textbook of Human Physiology (1891). Figure 2. This drawing of a hypothetical reticular network is reproduced from reference 1 with the permission of author Larry Swanson. There are no synapses nerve cells are shown in direct continuity with muscle cells as well as other nerve cells. He reproduced it from an original in Landois and Sterling's Textbook of Human Physiology (1891).
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.