Bibliography

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Ventilationperfusion matching

In order to optimize gas exchange, the uptake of oxygen from the alveolar gas into the pulmonary blood, and the elimination of carbon dioxide from the pulmonary blood into the alveolar gas, a given lung unit must be equally well ventilated and perfused. In other words, the air and blood must be brought together for the exchange gases. This is referred to as ventilation-perfusion (V Q) matching. The most effective conditions for gas exchange occur when the V Q ratio is equal to one, or when the...

Interconnections between neurons

The interconnections or communication among neurons in humans is very extensive. Imagine the complexity of the electrical activity that may occur among 100 billion neurons in the human brain where each of these neurons provides input to and receives input from hundreds of other neurons. It is the diversity of these interconnections that accounts for the uniqueness of many abstract neurological phenomena in individuals such as intellect, personality, and memory. The two types of interconnections...

Pancreas

The pancreas is an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland. The exocrine tissue produces a bicarbonate solution and digestive enzymes. These substances are transported to the small intestine where they play a role in the chemical digestion of food. These functions are fully discussed in Chapter 18 on the digestive system. Scattered throughout the pancreas and surrounded by exocrine cells are small clusters of endocrine cells referred to as the islets of Langerhans. These islets make up only 2 to...

Homeostasis

This maintenance of relatively constant or steady-state internal conditions is referred to as homeostasis. It is important because the cells and tissues of the body will survive and function efficiently only when these internal conditions are properly maintained. This is not to say that the internal Table 1.1 Contribution of Organ Systems to the Maintenance of Homeostasis Regulates muscular activity and glandular secretion responsible for all activities associated with the mind Regulates...

Essentials For Human Physiology

AHFS Drug Information 2000, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda, MD, 2000. 2. Bell, D.R., Core Concepts in Physiology, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 1998. 3. Costanzo, L., Physiology, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1998. 4. Guyton, A.C. and Hall, J.E., Textbook of Medical Physiology, 10th ed., W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2000. 5. Hunt, M.L., Jr., Training Manual for Intravenous Admixture Personnel, 5th ed., Baxter Healthcare Corp., 1995. 6. Lombard, J.H. and...

Adrenal glands

There are two adrenal glands, one located on top of each kidney. These glands are composed of two distinct functional regions Adrenal medulla. Derived from neural crest tissue, the adrenal medulla forms the inner portion of the adrenal gland. It is the site of production of the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which serve as a circulating counterpart to the sympathetic neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, released directly from sympathetic neurons to the tissues. As such, the...

Vasoactive substances

Substances released from many cells and tissues in the body, including the endothelium lining blood vessels, endocrine glands, and myocytes in the heart, may affect vascular smooth muscle tone. These substances may stimulate this muscle to cause vasoconstriction or inhibit it to cause vasodilation. As expected, vasoconstriction will increase TPR (and therefore MAP) and vasodilation will decrease TPR (and therefore MAP). Vasoconstrictors. Many substances produced in the human body cause...

Mechanics of breathing

The mechanics of breathing involve volume and pressure changes occurring during ventilation that allow air to move in and out of the lungs. Air will move from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. Therefore, a pressure gradient between the atmosphere and the alveoli must be developed. This section will explain how changes in thoracic volume, lung volume, and pulmonary pressures occur in order to cause the pressure gradients responsible for inspiration and expiration. Thoracic...

Human Physiology

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