Bibliography

AHFS Drug Information 2000, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda, MD, 2000. 2. Bell, D.R., Core Concepts in Physiology, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 1998. 3. Costanzo, L., Physiology, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1998. 4. Guyton, A.C. and Hall, J.E., Textbook of Medical Physiology, 10th ed., W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2000. 5. Hunt, M.L., Jr., Training Manual for Intravenous Admixture Personnel, 5th ed., Baxter Healthcare Corp., 1995. 6. Lombard, J.H. and...

Adrenal glands

There are two adrenal glands, one located on top of each kidney. These glands are composed of two distinct functional regions Adrenal medulla. Derived from neural crest tissue, the adrenal medulla forms the inner portion of the adrenal gland. It is the site of production of the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which serve as a circulating counterpart to the sympathetic neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, released directly from sympathetic neurons to the tissues. As such, the...

Vasoactive substances

Substances released from many cells and tissues in the body, including the endothelium lining blood vessels, endocrine glands, and myocytes in the heart, may affect vascular smooth muscle tone. These substances may stimulate this muscle to cause vasoconstriction or inhibit it to cause vasodilation. As expected, vasoconstriction will increase TPR (and therefore MAP) and vasodilation will decrease TPR (and therefore MAP). Vasoconstrictors. Many substances produced in the human body cause...

Mechanics of breathing

The mechanics of breathing involve volume and pressure changes occurring during ventilation that allow air to move in and out of the lungs. Air will move from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. Therefore, a pressure gradient between the atmosphere and the alveoli must be developed. This section will explain how changes in thoracic volume, lung volume, and pulmonary pressures occur in order to cause the pressure gradients responsible for inspiration and expiration. Thoracic...

Human Physiology

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