Vasoactive substances

Substances released from many cells and tissues in the body, including the endothelium lining blood vessels, endocrine glands, and myocytes in the heart, may affect vascular smooth muscle tone. These substances may stimulate this muscle to cause vasoconstriction or inhibit it to cause vasodilation. As expected, vasoconstriction will increase TPR (and therefore MAP) and vasodilation will decrease TPR (and therefore MAP). Vasoconstrictors. Many substances produced in the human body cause...

Mechanics of breathing

The mechanics of breathing involve volume and pressure changes occurring during ventilation that allow air to move in and out of the lungs. Air will move from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. Therefore, a pressure gradient between the atmosphere and the alveoli must be developed. This section will explain how changes in thoracic volume, lung volume, and pulmonary pressures occur in order to cause the pressure gradients responsible for inspiration and expiration. Thoracic...

Bibliography

Amaral, D.G., The anatomical organization of the nervous system, in Principles of Neuroscience, 4th ed., Kandel, E.R., Schwartz, J.H., and Jessell, T.M., Eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000, chap. 17. 2. Babe, K.S., Jr. and Serafin, W.E., Histamine, bradykinin and their antagonists, in Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed., Hardman, J.G. and Limbird, L.E., Eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, chap. 25. 3. Bloom, F.E., Neurotransmission and the central nervous...

Human Physiology

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