A

Absolute refractory period, 26, 28, 173 Absorptive cells, 299 Acetaminophen, 88 Acetazolamide, 325 Acetylcholine, 98, 101, 143, 253 Acetylcholinesterase, 99 Acidosis, 41 Actin, 143, 153 Action potentials absolute refractory period of, 28 after-hyperpolarization of, 28 cardiac, 170, 173 conduction of, 28-32 definition of, 25 features of, 24 initiation of, 29 propagated, 143 relative refractory period of, 28 unidirectional conduction of, 32 voltage-gated ion channels, 25, 27 Activated factor XII, 236 Activation gate, 27 Active hyperemia, 217-218 Active transport, 14 A-delta fibers, 78, 80 Adenohypophysis description of, 120, 122 hormones of, 126-129 Adenosine diphosphate, 145 Adenosine triphosphate muscle contraction and, 145-146 sources of, 146-147 Adjuvant analgesics, 88 Adrenal cortex anatomy of, 132 androgens of, 136 glucocorticoids, 134-135

hormones produced by, 123, 132-135

mineralocorticoids, 123, 133-134 Adrenal medulla description of, 99, 107-109, 132 hormones produced by, 123, 132 Adrenalin, 99 Adrenergic fibers, 99 ß2-Adrenergic receptor agonists,

253-254 Adrenergic receptors, 101-102 Adrenocorticotropic hormone, 115,

122, 127 Afferent arterioles angiotensin II effects on, 333-334 description of, 330-331 prostaglandins effect on, 334 sympathetic nerves effect on, 331-333

Afferent division, of peripheral nervous system, 46 Afferent neurons, 46, 67, 73 After-hyperpolarization, 28 Afterload, 189 Agglutination, 230, 234 Agonist, 11, 42 Agranulocytes, 232 Airway(s)

collapse of, 252 description of, 241-242 obstruction of, 251-252, 262 radius of, 251-252 Airway resistance, 251-253 Albumin, 129, 228 Aldosterone description of, 123, 133 sodium reabsorption and, 319-320 Alkalosis, 41

Alpha motor neurons, 67

Alpha receptors, 102 Alveolar cells, 241 Alveolar dead space, 257, 263 Alveolar ducts, 241 Alveolar pressure, 245 Alveolar ventilation, 256-257 Alveoli description of, 240-241, 247 interdependence of, 250-251 partial pressure of carbon dioxide of, 260-261 Amine hormones, 114 Aminopeptidases, 302 Amylase, 286, 300 Analgesics adjuvant, 88 endogenous, 82-84 exogenous, 87 nonnarcotic, 87-88 opioid, 88 Anatomical dead space, 241, 257 Androgens, 123, 136 Androstenedione, 136 Anemia definition of, 267 pernicious, 293 Anesthesia epidural, 71-72 spinal, 69-70 Angina, 85, 213 Angiotensin I, 333

Angiotensin II, 133-134, 209, 333-334, 337-339

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, 211-212

Angiotensin-converting enzyme, 134, 333

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 5, 209, 211-212 Angiotensinogen, 133 Anions, 18-19 Antagonist, 11, 42 Antiarrhythmic drugs, 176 Antibodies, 229-230 Anticholinergic drugs, 287 Anticoagulant drugs, 238 Antidiuresis, 124 Antidiuretic hormone description of, 120, 124-126, 209-210 urine output and, 339

water reabsorption controlled by, 320-321, 323 Antigens, 10, 229-230 Antihistamines, 61 Antihypertensive drugs, 210-212 Antiplatelet drugs, 234 Aorta, 167 Aortic bodies, 207 Aortic valve, 167 Appendix, 303 Aquaporins, 320 Arrhythmia, 176 Arterial baroreceptors, 3 Arterioles afferent angiotensin II effects on, 333-334 description of, 330-331 prostaglandins effect on, 334 sympathetic nerves effect on, 331-333 anatomy of, 195-196, 218 Ascending sensory pathways, 52-53 Ascending tracts, 65, 68-69 Aspirin, 87, 234 Association areas, 82 Association tracts, 50 Asthma definition of, 252 pharmacological treatment of, 253-254

Asynchronous motor unit summation,

150 Ataxia, 59 Atelectasis, 248 Atmospheric pressure, 245 Atria, 164, 166

Atrial natriuretic peptide, 213, 320, 334, 336

Atrioventricular node, 171 Atrioventricular valves, 166-167 Autonomic nervous system definition of, 91 efferent pathways of, 93-94 "fight-or-flight" reactions, 94, 103, 253

functions of, 103, 106-107 heart rate effects, 183 homeostatic functions of, 91-93 mean arterial pressure affected by, 202-208

neurotransmitters acetylcholine, 98, 101 description of, 97-99 epinephrine, 98-99, 102, 108 features of, 98

norepinephrine, 98, 102, 108 receptors for, 99, 101-102 termination of activity, 99 parasympathetic division of, see Parasympathetic nervous system pathways of, 100 regulation of, 92-93 schematic diagram of, 96 smooth muscle and, 159-160 somatic nervous system vs., 92 sympathetic division of, see

Sympathetic nervous system tissue effects of, 104-105 Autoregulation, 218, 329-330 Axon central, 67 definition of, 29 diameter of, 31 myelinated, 29 peripheral, 46 unmyelinated, 30 Axon hillock, 29 Axon terminal, 29

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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