Autonomic nervous system

The effects of the autonomic nervous system on MAP are summarized in Figure 15.4. The parasympathetic system innervates the SA node and the AV node of the heart. The major cardiovascular effect of parasympathetic stimulation, by way of the vagus nerves, is to decrease HR, which decreases CO and MAP.

The sympathetic system innervates most tissues in the heart including the SA node, AV node, and ventricular muscle. Sympathetic stimulation causes an increase in HR as well as an increase in ventricular contractility, which


Cardiac Output

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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