B

B lymphocytes, 232 Barometric pressure, 245 Baroreceptors, 3, 93, 205, 217, 330, 334 Basal ganglia, 55-56 Basement membrane, 197, 313 Basophils, 232 Beta receptors, 102-103 Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, 211

Bicarbonate ions, 269-270, 274, 304-305 Bile definition of, 296-297 transport of, 298 Bile salts, 296-297, 302 Bilirubin, 296

2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate, 266-267 Blood cellular elements of, 227

composition of, 227 erythrocytes, 228-229 gas transport in, 264-269 leukocytes, 230-232 oxygen content in, 264 plasma, 228 platelets, 232-233 pooling of, 216 viscosity of, 200, 228 Blood flow autoregulation of, 218

capillaries, 219

description of, 199-201

mean arterial pressure, 201-202

regulation of, 217-218

renal afferent arteriole effects on,

330-331 autoregulation of, 329-330 description of, 316, 329 mean arterial pressure and, 330-331 total peripheral resistance, 202 Blood pressure, 197-199, 332-333 Blood types, 229-230 Blood vessels arteries, 195 arterioles, see Arterioles capillaries, 196-197 flow through, 199-201 radius of, 200 structure of, 195 veins, 197 Blood volume, 215 Blood-brain barrier, 60-61 Blood-gas interface, 240-241, 258-259 Bone resorption, parathyroid hormone effects on, 132 Bowel, see Large intestine; Small intestine Bowman's capsule, 310-311, 313 Bowman's capsule pressure, 315 Boyle's law, 245 Bradycardia definition of, 176 training-induced, 183 Bradykinin, 79-80 Brain basal ganglia, 55-56 cerebellum, 58-59

cerebral cortex, see Cerebral cortex cerebrospinal fluid of, 61-62 cerebrum, 48-51 frontal section of, 50 functions of, 3-4, 49 hypothalamus, 56-57 regions of, 49 structures of, 49 thalamus, 56 weight of, 62 Brainstem description of, 48, 57-58 homeostatic functions of, 92 Breathing expiration, 243-244 inspiration, 243 mechanics of, 243-246 work of, 247 Broca's area, 55

Bronchial smooth muscle, 252-253, 263 Bronchioles, 241-242 Bronchitis, chronic, 252 Bronchoconstriction, 252-253 Bronchodilation, 108, 253 Bulk flow, 220 Bundle branches, 172 Bundle of His, 172

C fibers, 78, 80 Calcitonin, 123, 130-131 Calcium muscle contraction and, 143, 157-158

parathyroid hormone effects on, 131 Calcium channel(s)

inositol triphosphate-gated, 161 ligand-gated, 161 stretch-activated, 161 voltage-gated, 36, 161 Calcium channel blockers, 211-212 Calmodulin, 157 cAMP, see Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Capillaries blood flow velocity through, 219 description of, 164, 196-197 exchange at, 219-224 fluid movement factors, 221-222

hydrostatic pressure, 221, 223-224 interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure, 221-222 interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure, 221 lymphatic, 223 peritubular, 309 permeability of, 224 plasma colloid osmotic pressure, 221 precapillary sphincter of, 220 Carbohydrates description of, 10 metabolism of, 296, 300 Carbon dioxide description of, 258 partial pressure of, 260-261, 266 physical dissolution of, 268 transport of, 267-270 Carbon monoxide, 267 Carbon monoxide poisoning, 267 Carbonic acid, 269-270 Carbonic anhydrase, 269-270, 274 Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, 323, 325 Carboxypeptidase, 300 Cardiac action potential, 170 Cardiac cycle, 177-180 Cardiac function curve, 186-187 Cardiac glycosides, 189-190 Cardiac index, 182-183 Cardiac muscle, 168-169 Cardiac output age-based variations in, 183 allocation of, 194 calculation of, 181, 201 cardiac glycosides effect on, 189-190 definition of, 181 diuretics effect on, 187-188 exercise effects on, 190-191 factors that affect, 182-183 venous return and, 214-216 Cardiac reserve, 182 Cardiovascular system components of, 164 heart, see Heart sympathetic nervous system effects on, 335 Carotid bodies, 207 Carrier proteins, 14 Catecholamines beta receptor affinity of, 108

breadth of activity, 108 description of, 99 duration of activity, 107-108 epinephrine, see Epinephrine heart rate affected by, 185 norepinephrine, see Norepinephrine protein/peptide hormones vs., 114 vasoconstriction effects of, 209 Catechol-O-methyltransferase, 99, 108 Cauda equina, 64 Cecum, 303

Cell-mediated immunity, 232 Central axon, 67 Central nervous system brain, see Brain components of, 46 definition of, 3 functional levels of, 47-48 interneurons, 67 spinal cord, see Spinal cord Centrally acting drugs, 59 Centrally mediated hyperalgesia, 80-81 Cerebellum, 58-59 Cerebral cortex autonomic nervous system activities regulated by, 92 functions of, 48 regions of, 51-55 Cerebrocerebellum, 59 Cerebrospinal fluid, 61-62 Cerebrum, 48-51 Chemical receptors, 10 Chemical synapses, 35-38 Chemoreceptors central, 273

description of, 207-208, 272 digestive, 283

hydrogen ion concentration effects on, 275

partial pressure of carbon dioxide effects, 274-275 partial pressure of oxygen effects,

273-274 peripheral, 273 types of, 272-273 Chief cells, 292 Chloride description of, 20 reabsorption of, 320 Chloride shift, 269

Chlorothiazide, 324 Cholecystokinin, 284, 291, 297-298 Cholesterol, 9 Cholinergic receptors, 101 Cholinomimetic drugs, 106-107 Chordae tendinea, 166 Choroid plexus, 61 Chronotropism, 183 Chylomicrons, 302 Chyme, 288-291, 303 Chymotrypsin, 300 Circulatory system blood pressure, 197-199 blood vessels arteries, 195 arterioles, 195-196, 218 capillaries, 196-197 flow through, 199-201 radius of, 200 structure of, 195 veins, 197 capillary exchange, 219-224 exercise effects on, 218-219 function of, 2 functions of, 194-195 gravity effects on, 216-217 mean arterial pressure angiotensin II effects on, 333 autonomic nervous system effects on, 202-208 calculation of, 198-199 parasympathetic nervous system effects on, 206 regulation of, 201-202 renal blood flow and, 330-331 sympathetic nervous system effects on, 206 vasomotor tone effects on, 203-204 schematic diagram of, 196 vasoconstrictors, 208-210 vasodilators, 211-212 venous return, 186, 213-216 Clots dissolution of, 237 formation of, 237 prevention of, 237 Clotting factors, 235-236, 296 Coagulation, 235-236, 296 Collapsing pressure, 247

Collecting duct, 311, 323 Colon, 303

Commissural tracts, 50 Common bile duct, 297-298 Compliance, 214 Concentration gradient, 11, 18 Conditioned reflex, 276 Congestive heart failure, 224 Connective tissue elastic, 195 fibrous, 195 Contractility, 188 Convergence, 40 Corpus callosum, 50 Corpus luteum, 127 Corticospinal tracts, 70 Corticosteroids, 135-136, 254 Corticotropin-releasing hormone,

127, 135 Cortisol, 123, 134-135 Cramps, 85 Cranial nerves, 48 Creatine kinase, 147 Creatine phosphate, 146 Creatinine, 328 Cromolyn, 254 Crossbridge cycling, 145 Crossed-extensor reflex, 75 Cuboidal epithelial cells, 242 Cutaneous pain, 83-84 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate,

116-117 Cyclooxygenase-1, 87 Cyclooxygenase-2, 87

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment