Contents

Chapter 1 Physiology and the concept of homeostasis 1

Study objectives 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Homeostasis 1

1.3 Negative feedback 4

Bibliography 6

Chapter 2 Plasma membrane 7

Study objectives 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Structure and function of plasma membrane 7

2.3 Membrane transport 11

2.4 Passive diffusion through the membrane 11

2.5 Osmosis 12

2.6 Mediated transport 13

Bibliography 14

Chapter 3 Membrane potential 17

Study objectives 17

3.1 Introduction 17

3.2 Development of resting membrane potential 18

Bibliography 21

Chapter 4 Electrical signals 23

Study objectives 23

4.1 Introduction 23

4.2 Graded potentials 23

4.3 Action potentials 25

4.4 Conduction of the action potential 28

Bibliography 33

Chapter 5 Synaptic transmission 35

Study objectives 35

5.1 Introduction 35

5.2 Chemical synapses 35

5.3 Summation 38

5.4 Interconnections between neurons 40

5.5 Factors affecting synaptic transmission 41

Bibliography 43

Chapter 6 The nervous system 45

Study objectives 45

6.1 Introduction 45

6.2 Classes of neurons 46

6.3 Major levels of CNS function 47

6.4 The brain 49

6.4.1 Cerebrum 49

6.4.2 Functional regions of the cerebral cortex 51

6.4.3 Basal ganglia 55

6.4.4 Thalamus 56

6.4.5 Hypothalamus 56

6.4.6 Brainstem 57

6.4.7 Cerebellum 58

6.5 Blood-Brain Barrier 60

6.6 Cerebrospinal fluid 61

Bibliography 62

Chapter 7 The spinal cord 63

Study objectives 63

7.1 Introduction 63

7.2 Functions of the spinal cord 65

7.3 Composition of the cord 65

7.3.1 Gray matter 66

7.3.2 White matter 68

7.4 Spinal reflexes 72

Bibliography 75

Chapter 8 Pain 77

Study objectives 77

8.1 Introduction 77

8.2 Nociceptors 78

8.3 Hyperalgesia 80

8.4 Neurotransmitters of nociceptive afferent fibers 81

8.5 Pain pathway 81

8.6 Endogenous analgesic system 82

8.7 Cutaneous pain 83

8.8 Deep somatic pain 84

8.9 Visceral pain 85

8.10 Referred pain 85

8.11 Phantom pain 86

8.12 Pharmacologic treatment of pain 87

Bibliography 88

Chapter 9 The autonomic nervous system 91

Study objectives 91

9.1 Introduction 91

9.2 Regulation of autonomic nervous system activity 92

9.3 Efferent pathways of autonomic nervous system 93

9.4 Divisions of autonomic nervous system 94

9.5 Sympathetic division 94

9.6 Parasympathetic division 97

9.7 Neurotransmitters of autonomic nervous system 97

9.8 Termination of neurotransmitter activity 99

9.9 Receptors for autonomic neurotransmitters 99

9.10 Functions of the autonomic nervous system 103

9.11 Adrenal medulla 107

Bibliography 109

Chapter 10 The endocrine system 111

Study objectives 111

10.1 Introduction 111

10.2 Biochemical classification of hormones 112

10.3 Transport of hormones 114

10.4 Functional classification of hormones 115

10.5 Hormone interactions 115

10.6 Mechanisms of hormone action 116

10.7 Pituitary gland 119

10.8 Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland 120

10.9 Negative feedback control of hormone release 124

10.10 Hormones of the neurohypophysis 124

10.11 Hormones of the adenohypophysis 126

10.12 Thyroid gland 129

10.13 Parathyroid glands 131

10.14 Adrenal glands 132

10.15 Pancreas 136

Bibliography 138

Chapter 11 Skeletal muscle 139

Study objectives 139

11.1 Introduction 139

11.2 Isometric vs. isotonic contraction 140

11.3 Structure of skeletal muscle 141

11.4 Neuromuscular junction 143

11.5 Mechanism of contraction 143

11.6 Sources of ATP for muscle contraction 146

11.7 Muscle fatigue 147

11.8 Oxygen debt 147

11.9 Types of muscle fibers 148

11.10 Muscle mechanics 149

Bibliography 153

Chapter 12 Smooth muscle 155

Study objectives 155

12.1 Introduction 155

12.2 Structure of smooth muscle 155

12.3 Calcium and the mechanism of contraction 157

12.4 Smooth muscle contraction is slow and prolonged 158

12.5 Types of smooth muscle 158

12.6 Factors influencing contractile activity of smooth muscle 160

12.7 Length-tension relationship 161

Bibliography 162

Chapter 13 Cardiac physiology 163

Study objectives 163

13.1 Introduction 164

13.2 Functional anatomy of the heart 164

13.3 Electrical activity of the heart 169

13.4 Electrocardiogram 174

13.5 Cardiac cycle 177

Bibliography 180

Chapter 14 Cardiac output 181

Study objectives 181

14.1 Introduction 181

14.2 Control of heart rate 183

14.3 Control of stroke volume 185

14.4 Effect of exercise on cardiac output 190

Bibliography 191

Chapter 15 The circulatory system 193

Study objectives 193

15.1 Introduction 194

15.2 Blood vessels 195

15.3 Blood pressure throughout systemic circulation 197

15.4 Blood flow through a vessel 199

15.5 Regulation of arterial pressure 201

15.6 Autonomic nervous system 202

15.7 Vasoactive substances 208

15.8 Venous return 213

15.9 Effects of gravity on the circulatory system 216

15.10 Regulation of blood flow through tissues 217

15.11 Effects of acute exercise on the circulatory system 218

15.12 Capillary exchange 219

Bibliography 224

Chapter 16 Blood and hemostasis 227

Study objectives 227

16.1 Introduction 227

16.2 Plasma 228

16.3 Erythrocytes 228

16.4 Blood types 229

16.5 Leukocytes 230

16.6 Platelets 232

16.7 Hemostasis 233

Bibliography 238

Chapter 17 The respiratory system 239

Study objectives 239

17.1 Introduction 240

17.2 Blood-gas interface 240

17.3 Airways 241

17.4 The pleura 242

17.5 Mechanics of breathing 243

17.6 Elastic behavior of lungs 246

17.7 Interdependence 250

17.8 Airway resistance 251

17.9 Ventilation 254

17.10 Diffusion 258

17.11 Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide 260

17.12 Ventilation-perfusion matching 261

17.13 Gas transport in blood 264

17.14 Regulation of ventilation 269

17.15 Ventilatory response to exercise 275

Bibliography 276

Chapter 18 The digestive system 279

Study objectives 279

18.1 Introduction 279

18.2 Digestive tract wall 281

18.3 Regulation of gastrointestinal function 282

18.4 Mouth 285

18.5 Pharynx 287

18.6 Esophagus 288

18.7 Stomach 288

18.8 Liver 295

18.9 Gallbladder 297

18.10 Pancreas 297

18.11 Transport of bile and pancreatic juice to small intestine 298

18.12 Small intestine 298

18.13 Large intestine 303

Bibliography 305

Chapter 19 The renal system 307

Study objectives 307

19.1 Introduction 308

19.2 Functional anatomy of kidneys 309

19.3 Basic renal processes 312

19.4 Glomerular filtration 313

19.5 Tubular reabsorption 316

19.6 Vasa recta 325

19.7 Tubular secretion 326

19.8 Plasma clearance 327

19.9 Renal blood flow 329

19.10 Control of sodium excretion: regulation of plasma volume 336

19.11 Control of water excretion: regulation of plasma osmolarity 338

Bibliography 341

Index 343

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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