M

Macrophages, 232

Macula densa, 330, 334

Maltose, 286, 300

Mass sympathetic discharge, 95

Mast cells, 231-232

Mastication, 285

Mean arterial pressure angiotensin II effects on, 333 autonomic nervous system effects on, 202-208 calculation of, 198-199 parasympathetic nervous system effects on, 206 regulation of, 201-202 renal blood flow and, 330-331 sympathetic nervous system effects on, 206

vasomotor tone effects on, 203-204 Mechanical nociceptors, 78 Mechanoreceptors, 283 Mediated transport, 13-14 Medulla oblongata, 57 Medullary respiratory center, 271-272 Megakaryocyte, 232-233 Membrane fluidity, 9 Membrane potential changes in, 24 definition of, 17 depolarization of, 24

hyperpolarization of, 24 magnitude of, 17 repolarization of, 25 resting, 18-21, 169 Membrane transport, 11 Mesentery, 282 Metabolic acidosis, 275 Midbrain, 49, 58 Milk letdown reflex, 126 Mineralocorticoids, 123, 133-134 Minute volume, 256 Mitochondria, 149 Mitral valve, 166 Monoamine oxidase, 99 Monocytes, 232 Monoglycerides, 302 Morphine, 88 Motility gastric, 289-291 large intestine, 304 small intestine, 299-300 stomach, 289-291 Motor neurons, 67, 73 Motor unit, 150 Mouth, 285-286 Mu receptors, 88 Multineuronal tracts, 71 Multiple motor unit summation, 150 Multiple sclerosis, 31 Muscarinic receptors antagonists, 107 definition of, 101 Muscle cardiac, 168-169 skeletal, see Skeletal muscle smooth, see Smooth muscle Muscle contraction description of, 140 skeletal muscle adenosine triphosphate sources for, 146-147 isometric, 140 isotonic, 140 mechanisms, 143-146 strength of, 150 veins affected by, 215 smooth muscle calcium's effect on, 157-158 description of, 155 factors that affect, 160-161

mechanisms, 157-158 prolongation of, 158 slow onset of, 158 Muscle fatigue, 147 Muscle fibers description of, 141 diameter of, 153 fast-twitch, 148-149 resistance training effects on, 153 slow-twitch, 148 types of, 148-149 Muscle spasm-related pain, 85 Muscle twitch, 149 Muscularis externa, 281-282 Muscularis mucosa, 281 Mydriasis, 106 Myelin definition of, 29 loss of, 31 Myelinated axons, 29 Myocardium contractility of, 188 definition of, 167 Myofibrils, 141 Myogenic, 169, 330 Myogenic contraction, 161 Myosin, 141, 144 Myosin ATPase, 145 Myosin crossbridge, 145, 153 Myosin kinase, 157 Myosin phosphatase, 158

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