P

Pacemaker potential, 159, 169

Pain analgesics for, 87-88 cutaneous, 83-84 deep somatic, 84-85 description of, 32, 77-78 dynorphin for, 83 endogenous analgesic system for,

82-84 endorphins for, 83 enkephalins for, 83 fast, 78, 80 function of, 77-78 hyperalgesia, 80-81 pathways of, 81-82 phantom, 86-87

pharmacologic treatment of, 87-88 referred, 85-86 slow, 80

spinoreticular tract's role in, 81 visceral, 85 Pain receptors, 272 Pancreas anatomy of, 136

glucagon production by, 137-138 hormones produced by, 123 insulin production by, 136-137 islets of Langerhans, 136-137 Pancreatic amylase, 300 Pancreatic duct, 298 Pancreatic lipase, 302 Papillary muscles, 166 Para-aminohippuric acid, 328 Parafollicular cells, 130 Parasympathetic nervous system activation of, 103 description of, 97 heart rate affected by, 184 mean arterial pressure effects, 206 pathways of, 100 postganglionic fibers of, 97 preganglionic neurons of, 97 sinoatrial node innervation by, 202 sympathetic nervous system vs., 95 systemic effects of, 106 Parathormone, 115 Parathyroid glands functions of, 131-132 hormones produced by, 123 Parathyroid hormone, 123, 131 Parietal cells, 292-293

Parietal lobe, 51 Parietal pleura, 242 Parkinson's disease, 43, 56, 59 Partial pressure of carbon dioxide chemoreceptor response affected by, 274-275 description of, 260-261, 266 Partial pressure of nitrogen, 259 Partial pressure of oxygen chemoreceptors affected by, 273-274 description of, 259-261 Passive diffusion, 11-12 Pepsin, 292, 300 Pepsinogen, 292 Periaqueductal gray matter, 83 Pericardial fluid, 164 Pericardium, 164 Peripheral nervous system, 46 Peristalsis of small intestine, 299 of stomach, 282, 289 Peristaltic waves, 288 Peritoneum, 282 Peritubular capillaries, 309 Pernicious anemia, 293 Phagocytosis, 231 Phantom pain, 86-87 Pharynx, 287-288 Phasic contractions, 281 Phosphate, 131 Phospholipids, 8 Phrenic nerves, 243 Physiological dead space, 257 Physiology, 1-2 Pituitary gland adenohypophysis, 122, 126-129 anatomy of, 119-120 anterior, 120

hormones produced by, 122 hypothalamus and, relationship between, 120-121 neurohypophysis hormones,

124-126 posterior, 120 Plasma definition of, 228 osmolarity of, 308, 339 renal filtration of, 321 Plasma clearance, 327-329

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure, 221,

314-315 Plasma membrane carbohydrates, 10 cholesterol, 9 description of, 7 fluidity of, 9 function of, 7-11 homeostatic function of, 7 mediated transport, 13-14 osmosis, 12-13

passive diffusion through, 11-12 potential, see Membrane potential proteins in, 9-10 semipermeable, 12-13 structure of, 7-11 transport, 11 Plasma proteins, 224, 228 Plasmin, 237 Plasminogen, 237 Plasticity, 45 Platelet(s), 232-233 Platelet plug, 234 Pleura, 242 Pleural fluid, 242 Pleural space, 242 Plicae circulares, 299 Pneumonia, 259 Pneumothorax, 246 Poiseuille's law, 201 Polarized cells, 17 Polymodal nociceptors, 78 Polysynaptic reflex, 73 Pons, 57-58

Positive inotropic effect, 188 Posterior multimodal association area, 53 Posterior parietal cortex, 53 Postganglionic neurons, 93 Postsynaptic neuron, 38 Potassium channels, 27-28 Potassium ions description of, 18-19 efflux of, 36 renal secretion of, 326 Potassium-sparing diuretics, 323, 325 PR segment, 175 Precapillary sphincter, 220 Prefrontal multimodal association area, 53

Preganglionic neurons description of, 93 of parasympathetic nervous system, 97 of sympathetic nervous system, 93-94 Preload, 186 Pressure gradient, 199 Presynaptic inhibition, 102 Presynaptic neurons, 35, 38-39

Primary auditory cortex, 53 Primary visual cortex, 53 Procainamide, 176 Projection tracts, 50 Prolactin, 122, 127 Prolactin-releasing factor, 127 Proprioceptors, 272, 276 Prostacyclin, 212, 234 Prostaglandins, 79, 334, 340 Protein channels formed by, 10 description of, 9-10 extrinsic, 9-10 functions of, 10 intrinsic, 9 metabolism of, 296 small intestine digestion and absorption of, 300, 302 Protein kinase A, 117-118 Protein/peptide hormones,

112-114 Prothrombin, 236 Proton pump, 292 Proximal tubule, 310-311 Prozac, see Fluoxetine Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, 242 Pulmonary artery, 165, 167 Pulmonary capillaries, 240 Pulmonary compliance, 246-247 Pulmonary pressures, 244-245 Pulmonary stretch receptors, 272 Pulmonary surfactant, 248-249 Pulmonary valve, 167 Pulmonary veins, 166 Pulse pressure, 197 Purkinje fibers, 172-173 Pyloric sphincter, 288 Pyramidal cells, 70-71

QRS complex, 175

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