S

Salivary glands, 285-286

Salivary reflex, 286

Saltatory conduction, 29-31

Sarcomeres, 141-142, 168

Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 143, 157, 168

Saturation, 14

Schizophrenia, 42

Schwann cells, 29

Second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate,

116-117 definition of, 101 Second-order neurons, 66-68, 70, 81 Secretin, 284, 297 Semilunar valves, 167 Sensory neurons first-order, 67-68 second-order, 66-68, 70 Sensory receptors, 3 Serotonin, 79

Short-loop negative feedback, 124 Shunt, 262

Signal transduction, 116 Sinoatrial node, 169-172, 183-184, 202 Skeletal muscle cardiac muscle vs., 168-169 contractions of adenosine triphosphate sources for, 146-147 isometric, 140 isotonic, 140 mechanisms, 143-146 strength of, 150 veins affected by, 215 description of, 140 fatigue of, 147 fiber types, 148-149 functions of, 139 heat production by, 140 length-tension relationship, 152 mechanics of, 149-153 neuromuscular junction, 143 oxygen debt, 147-148 sarcomeres of, 141-142 smooth muscle vs., 156 structure of, 141-143 thick filaments, 141-142 thin filaments, 141, 143 Z lines, 141 Skeletal muscle pump, 216 Sliding filament theory, 143, 145, 168 Slow pain, 80

Slow-twitch muscle fibers, 148 Slow-wave potentials, 159-160, 281 Small intestine anatomy of, 298-299 brush border of, 299 digestion and absorption in carbohydrates, 300 description of, 300 electrolytes, 303 lipids, 302-303 proteins, 300, 302 water, 303 goblet cells of, 299 microvilli of, 299

motility of, 299-300 plicae circulares, 299 segments of, 298-299 villi of, 299 Smooth muscle autonomic nervous system's effect on, 159-160 bronchial, 252-253, 263 contractile activity of, 160-161 contraction calcium's effect on, 157-158 description of, 155 factors that affect, 160-161 mechanisms, 157-158 prolongation of, 158 slow onset of, 158 description of, 155 length-tension relationship, 161-162 multiunit, 158-159 pacemaker potential of, 159 single-unit, 159 skeletal muscle vs., 156 slow-wave potentials of, 159-160 spontaneous depolarizations, 159 structure of, 155-157 types of, 158-160 Sodium concentration gradient of, 20 description of, 18 excretion of, 336-338 glomerular filtration rate and, 336 homeostasis of, 336 influx of, 27

reabsorption of, 317-320, 338 Somatic motor neurons, 67 Somatomedins, 128 Somatosensory cortex, 52-53, 82 Somatostatin, 128 Somatotropin, 128 Spatial summation, 39-40 Sphincter of Oddi, 298 Spinal anesthesia, 69-70 Spinal cord anatomy of, 63-65 ascending tracts, 65, 68-69 composition of, 65-72 cross-sectional view of, 66 descending tracts, 65, 68, 70-71 function of, 65 functions of, 48

gray matter of, 65-68 neurons of, 66-68 regions of, 63 white matter of, 65, 68-72 Spinal nerves description of, 63-64 dorsal root of, 65 ventral root of, 65 Spinal reflexes, 72-75 Spinocerebellum, 59 Spinoreticular tract, 81 Spinothalamic tract, 81 ST segment, 175-176 Starling principle, 221 Steroid hormones, 112 Stomach anatomy of, 288-289 chyme, 288-291 emptying of, 289-290 functions of, 289 motility of, 289-291 mucosa of, 291 pyloric sphincter of, 288 regions of, 289 secretions of, 291-292 Stretch receptors, see Baroreceptors Stretch-activated calcium channels, 161 Stroke volume control of, 185-187 definition of, 179 Substance P, 79, 81 Sulcus, 50 Summation asynchronous motor unit, 150 multiple motor unit, 150 spatial, 39-40 temporal, 38-39 Superior vena cava, 165 Surface tension, 247 Surfactant, 248-249 Swallowing, 286 Swallowing reflex, 287 Sympathetic nervous system activation of, 103 anatomy innervated by, 97 blood pressure effects, 334 bronchodilation and, 253 cardiac innervations by, 202-203 cardiovascular system effects, 335 description of, 94

heart rate stimulation by, 183 innervations by, 202-203 mean arterial pressure effects, 206 neurons of, 94-95 parasympathetic nervous system vs., 95 pathways of, 100 renal effects of, 335 veins stimulated by, 215 Sympatholytics, 211-212 Sympathomimetic drugs, 103 Synapses chemical, 35-38

cholinergic, 99

definition of, 35

description of, 23-24

excitatory, 36-37

inhibitory, 37-38

transmission, factors that affect,

41-43 unidirectional, 35 Synaptic cleft definition of, 36

neurotransmitter removal from, 42 Synaptic knob, 36 Synaptic vesicles, 36 Syncytium, 169 Systole, 177

Systolic pressure, 197-198

Good Carb Diet

Good Carb Diet

WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.

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