Study objectives

• Compare functions of the right side and the left side of the heart

• Compare the functions of the arterial system and venous system

• Describe the functions of the three major mechanical components of the heart: atria, ventricles, and valves

• Describe the route of blood flow through the heart

• Discuss the functions of the chordae tendinae and the papillary muscles

• Explain why the thickness of the myocardium varies between the different heart chambers

• Compare and contrast the functional and structural features of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle

• Understand the physiological importance of the myocardial syncy-tium

• Describe the components of the specialized electrical conduction system of the heart

• Explain how the pacemaker of the heart initiates the heart beat

• Understand the physiological importance of the AV nodal delay

• Describe the mechanism and physiological significance of rapid electrical conduction through the Purkinje fibers

• Compare and contrast the action potentials generated by the SA node and ventricular muscle cells

• Discuss the mechanism and physiological significance of the effective refractory period

• List the types of information obtained from an electrocardiogram

• Describe each of the components of the electrocardiogram

• Define tachycardia and bradycardia

• Understand how arrhythmias may be treated pharmacologically

• Define systole and diastole

• Describe the mechanical events, status of the valves, and pressure changes that take place during each phase of the cardiac cycle

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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