Study objectives

• Describe the three types of nociceptors and the stimuli that activate them

• Distinguish between A-delta fibers and C fibers

• Compare and contrast fast pain and slow pain

• Distinguish between primary hyperalgesia and centrally mediated hyperalgesia

• Discuss functions of the neurotransmitters, glutamate, and substance P

• Describe the pain pathway and the role that each stimulated region of the brain plays in the response to pain

• Explain how the endogenous analgesic system suppresses pain

• Distinguish between cutaneous pain and deep visceral pain

• Describe the mechanisms by which tissue ischemia and muscle spasm lead to pain

• Discuss potential causes of visceral pain

• Describe the mechanism of referred pain

• Explain how phantom pain occurs

• List properties of an ideal analgesic medication

• List and discuss effects of nonnarcotic analgesic medications

• Discuss effects of opioid analgesic medications

• Discuss effects of adjuvant medications

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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