Study objectives

• Describe the blood-gas interface and explain why the lungs are ideally suited for gas exchange

• List components and functions of the conducting airways

• Distinguish between the various types of airways in terms of epithelium and cartilage

• Describe the forces and factors responsible for maintaining inflation of the lungs

• Explain how inspiration and expiration take place

• Distinguish among atmospheric pressure, alveolar pressure, intrapleural pressure, and transpulmonary pressure

• Define pulmonary compliance

• Describe the role of elastic connective tissues in elastic recoil of the lungs as well as in lung compliance

• Explain how surface tension affects the elastic behavior of the lungs

• Describe the functions of pulmonary surfactant

• Explain how interdependence promotes alveolar stability

• Describe factors that determine airway resistance

• Define tidal volume, residual volume, expiratory reserve volume, and inspiratory reserve volume

• Define functional residual capacity, inspiratory capacity, total lung capacity, and vital capacity

• Distinguish between total ventilation and alveolar ventilation

• Distinguish among anatomical dead space, alveolar dead space, and physiological dead space

• Explain how each factor in Fick's law of diffusion influences gas exchange

• List the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in various regions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems

• Explain how the PO2 and PCO2 of alveolar gas are determined

• Explain the effects of airway obstruction and obstructed blood flow on ventilation-perfusion matching

• Describe local control mechanisms that restore the V/Q ratio to one

• Explain how oxygen is transported in the blood

• Describe the physiological significance of the steep and plateau portions of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve

• Describe the effects of carbon dioxide, pH, temperature, 2,3-bispho-sphoglycerate, anemia, and carbon monoxide poisoning on the transport of oxygen

• Explain how carbon dioxide is transported in the blood

• Compare and contrast functions of the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups in the medullary respiratory center

• List and describe sources of input to the medullary respiratory center

• Compare and contrast the function of the peripheral and central chemoreceptors

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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