Study objectives

List the functions of the circulatory system

Describe how the volume of blood flow to individual tissues differs according to specific tissue function

Explain the function of each component of the blood vessel wall Distinguish among arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins in terms of their anatomical characteristics and their functions Distinguish among diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, and pulse pressure

Understand the method by which mean arterial pressure is calculated Describe how blood pressure changes as blood flows through the circulatory system

Understand Ohm's law and describe the relationship among blood flow, blood pressure, and vascular resistance

List the factors that affect vascular resistance and explain their physiological significance

Explain why mean arterial pressure must be closely regulated Explain how the autonomic nervous system alters cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and therefore mean arterial pressure List sources of input to the vasomotor center

Describe the mechanism of action and physiological significance of the baroreceptor reflex, chemoreceptor reflex, and low-pressure reflex Indicate the source, factors regulating the release, and physiological significance of the following vasoconstrictors: catecholamines, angio-tensin II, vasopressin, endothelin, and thromboxane A2 Indicate the source, factors regulating the release, and physiological significance of the following vasodilators: prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and atrial natriuretic peptide

Compare and contrast the compliance of systemic arteries and systemic veins

List specific blood reservoirs and their common characteristics

• Explain how blood volume, sympathetic stimulation of the veins, skeletal muscle activity, and respiratory activity influence venous return

• Describe the effects of gravity on the circulatory system

• Describe the mechanism of active hyperemia

• Define autoregulation of blood flow

• Explain how the myogenic mechanism causes autoregulation of blood flow

• Describe effects of acute exercise on the circulatory system

• Explain how blood flow through capillaries is regulated by vasomo-tion

• Describe the physiological significance of the Starling principle

• Explain how hydrostatic forces and osmotic forces regulate the bulk flow of fluid across the capillary wall

• Describe the four general conditions that can lead to edema formation

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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