Study objectives

• Describe the factors that determine cardiac output

• Distinguish among cardiac output, cardiac reserve, and cardiac index

• Discuss the factors that control heart rate

• Distinguish between the terms chronotropic and inotropic

• Discuss the factors that control stroke volume

• Distinguish between preload and afterload

• Describe the Frank-Starling law of the heart

• Understand how the cardiac function curve is generated

• Explain the mechanism of action of diuretics in congestive heart failure and hypertension

• Define ejection fraction

• Describe how cardiac output varies in a sedentary individual vs. an endurance-trained athlete

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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