Study objectives

• List vascular components of the nephron and describe their function

• List tubular components of the nephron and describe their function

• Distinguish between a cortical nephron and a juxtamedullary nephron

• Define the three basic renal processes

• Describe the components of the filtration barrier

• Explain how the filtration coefficient and net filtration pressure determine glomerular filtration

• Describe the mechanisms by which sodium, chloride, and water are reabsorbed

• Describe how each segment of the tubule handles sodium, chloride, and water

• Distinguish between the vertical osmotic gradient and the horizontal osmotic gradient

• Describe the functions of the vasa recta

• Describe the process by which potassium ions are secreted and the mechanism that regulates this process

• Define plasma clearance

• Explain how plasma clearance of inulin is used to determine glom-erular filtration rate

• Explain how plasma clearance of para-aminohippuric acid is used to determine the effective renal plasma flow

• Explain how the myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback are responsible for autoregulation of renal blood flow

• Explain how sympathetic nerves, angiotensin II, and prostaglandins affect the resistance of the afferent arteriole

• Describe factors that regulate the release of renin

• Explain how the control of sodium excretion regulates plasma volume

• Describe the mechanisms by which sodium excretion is controlled

• Explain how the control of water excretion regulates plasma osmo-larity

• Describe the mechanisms by which water balance is maintained

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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