Study objectives

• Define "cauda equina" and explain how it is formed

• Distinguish between a nerve and a tract

• Explain the function of the gray matter of the spinal cord

• Describe the location and function of each of the four types of neurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord

• Explain the function of the white matter of the spinal cord

• Describe the composition of the ascending tracts including the origin and termination of each of the neurons

• Distinguish between corticospinal tracts and multineuronal tracts

• Discuss the mechanisms by which spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia exert their effects

• Define the various categories of reflexes

• List the components of the reflex arc

• Explain the mechanism of the withdrawal reflex

• Explain the mechanism of the crossed-extensor reflex

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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