Study objectives

• Describe the anatomical and functional characteristics of each of the four layers of the digestive tract wall: mucosa, submucosa, muscu-laris externa, and serosa

• Distinguish between the two types of gastrointestinal motility: segmentation and peristalsis

• Explain how each of the three types of sensory receptors within the digestive tract is stimulated: chemoreceptors, osmoreceptors, and mechanoreceptors

• Explain how the following mechanisms regulate activity of the digestive system: intrinsic nerve plexuses, extrinsic autonomic nerves, and gastrointestinal hormones

• List the components of saliva and their functions

• Describe how salivary secretion is regulated

• Explain how swallowing takes place

• For the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, describe:

• Specialized anatomical modifications

• Type of motility and how it is regulated

• Types of secretions and how they are regulated

• Digestive processes that take place

• Absorptive processes that take place

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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