Substance P

The amino acid glutamate is the major neurotransmitter released by A-delta fibers and C fibers. Glutamate binds to the AMPA-type glutamate receptor on the second-order sensory neuron to elicit action potentials and continue transmission of the signal to higher levels of the CNS. Substance P is released primarily from C fibers. Levels of this neurotransmitter increase significantly under conditions of persistent pain. This neurotransmitter also stimulates ascending pathways in the spinal cord and appears to enhance and prolong the actions of glutamate.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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