Example of Reducing Power Measured with IVV

Although the major field of application of IVV is measuring temporal changes in the levels of DA, NA 5-HT, and their metabolites in the brain, IVV can also be used to attain a general profile of the reducing power by oxidation of the major LMWA in ECF. Recent results from our laboratory demonstrate the feasibility of recording antioxidant (or reducing) profiles from the rat brain in vivo. In brief, rats were implanted chronically with either single fiber or multifiber carbon electrodes (Fig. 7)...

L Redox Mediated Amplification of Immune Responses

Immune responses against environmental pathogens typically involve the lymphocyte receptors for antigen, receptors for costimulatory signals, and various cytokine receptors 149,150 . In addition, the immune response is subject to regulation by redox processes due to the various redox-sensitive signaling pathways discussed in the previous section. The activation of T-cell functions is strongly enhanced by ROS and or by an oxidative shift in the intracellular glutathione REDST 62,106 . Superoxide...

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes (T2DM) is one of the most common age-associated diseases (diabetes of the elderly) and is characterized by a variety of severe complications which can be responsible for disability and eventually death. Diabetic patients not only live shorter lives but also have longer periods of disability. The pathogenesis of T2DM is complex, and a large literature indicates that inflammation and oxidative stress play an important role. In particular, TNF-a and its...

Mitochondrial Dna Variants And Aging

Mitochondrial ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation is essential for normal function and maintenance of human organ systems, and numerous mutations of mtDNA are known to cause severe maternally transmitted diseases. A common feature in this group of inborn diseases is the involvement of some enzymes in the pathway of aerobic energy production. Thus, these syndromes are characterized by defects in organs and functions where energy supply is of more importance such as muscles, heart, eye,...

Secondary Oxidation of 8Oxo78Dihydroguanine Components

Interestingly, it was shown that 8-oxodGuo (35), an ubiquitous marker of exposure of DNA to most of the oxidizing agents, is a much better substrate than dGuo to further oxidation and particularly that mediated by 1O2 119 . Thus, it was found that the rate of reaction of 1O2 with 8-oxodGuo (35) is about two orders of magnitude higher than with dGuo (28) 120,121 . It is likely that 1O2 adds across the 4,5-ethylenic bond of 8-oxodGuo (35) to generate a transient dioxetane (40) that decomposes...