Tiotropium Bromide Spiriva

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Carbon Hydrogen M Oxygen A Nitrogen Sulfur Year of discovery 1991 Year of Introduction 2004 (Pfizer, Boehrlnger Ingelheim) Drug category Long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilator Main uses Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Related drugs Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe a set of chronic lung diseases in which there is obstruction or...

Oral Contraceptives

Structural Formulas Ball-and-Stick Models Space-filling Models Norethynodrel Mestranol Norethynodrel Mestranol Norethynodrel Mestranol Year of discovery 1950s Year of introduction 1960 (GD Searle & Company) Drug category Oral contraceptives Main uses Prevention of unplanned pregnancy Commercial names Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Triphasil, Alesse, Cyclessa, Ortho-Cept, Yasmin, etc,. Estrogens and progestins are natural steroidal hormones that are vital in sexual development and in the regulation of the...

T

Energy of two hydrogens as a function of internuclear distance. A large amount of energy is required to break the H-H bond of H2 - 104 kcal mol - (a mol is defined as 6.02x1023 atoms, Avogadro's number). In the pure state the H2 molecule can be heated to 500 C without any decomposition. The bonding diagram for H2 allows us to explain why H2 does not react with another H atom to form H3 as a stable molecule. The bonding orbital MO(1) of H2 is filled since no more than two electrons can...

Oxytocin Oxytocin

Structural Formula Ball-arid-Stick Model Space-filling Model Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Year of discovery 1952 Year of introduction 1950s Drug category Neuropeptide hormone Main uses Induction of labor Other brand names Pitocin Related drugs Dinoprostone (Cervidil, Prostin E2), Misoprostol (Cytotec). Oxytocin is a natural peptide hormone that stimulates uterine contraction and induces labor. It is intravenously administered to facilitate the progression of labor or to reduce...

Tacrolimus Prograf

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Carbon Hydrogen A Oxygen A Nitrogen Year of discovery of immunosuppressant activity 1987 (Fujisawa, later Astellas) Year of introduction 1994 Drug category Immunosuppressant Main uses Prevention of organ transplant rejection and treatment of eczema Other brand names FK-506, Fujimycin, Protopic Related drugs Cyclosporin (Neoral), Sirolimus (Rapamune). Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressant used for the prevention of graft rejection...

Omeprazole Prilosec

Hydrogen A Oxygen A Nitrogen Sulfur Hydrogen A Oxygen A Nitrogen Sulfur Year of discovery late 1970s Year of introduction 1987 (Astra Pharmaceuticals, now AstraZeneca) Drug category. Proton pump inhibitor Main uses For the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. In combination with antibiotics such as clarithromycin and amoxicillin it is used to eradicate the bacterium Helicobacter pylori that can lead to gastric ulcers Related drugs Lansoprazole...

Ezetimibe Zetia

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Q Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Fluorine Nitrogen Year of discovery 1998 Year of introduction 2002 (Schering-Plough & Merck) Drug category Anti-hypolipidemic agent selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor Main uses For the reduction of high cholesterol levels (LDL) as an adjunct to dietary measures, as a monotherapy, or in combination with statins (e.g., atorvastatin, simvastatin) Other brand names Ezetrol and Ezemibe Related drugs...

Amoxicillin Amoxil

Carbon Hydrogen S Oxygen M Nitrogen Sulfur Year of discovery 1972 Year of introduction 1979 (GlaxoSmithKline) Drug category (3-Lactam penicillin Main uses For the treatment of bacterial infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, blood infections, typhoid fever and the eradication of Helicobacteria pylori in the gut Other brand names Isimoxin, Ospamox Related drugs Augmentin (Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid), Unasyn (Ampicillin + Sulbactam), Piperacillin (Pipracil)....

Montelukast Sodium Singulair

Carbon Hydrogen A Oxygen A Chlorine A Nitrogen Si Sulfur Year of discovery 1991 Year of introduction 1998 (Merck) Drug category Oral leukotriene receptor antagonist Main uses Treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies Related drugs Zafirlukast (Accolate), Pranlukast (Onon). Montelukast sodium is a synthetic antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor which has proven efficacious in the treatment of asthma. The severity of asthma varies from mild to life-threatening....

Ribavirin Virazole

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Year of discovery 1970 (ICN) Year of introduction 1980 (for RSV in children) 1998 (in combination with interferon for HCV) Drug category Nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral Main uses For the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) in combination with interferon-a or peginterferon-a Other brand names Rebetol, Copegus, Cotronak, Ribasphere. Sold as a generic drug since 2005 Related drugs Viramidine, HCV-796 (Wyeth...

Isoniazid Laniazid

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Carbon Hydrogen 1 Oxygen Fluorine Nitrogen Year of discovery 1912 (by Hans Meyer and Josef Mally of Germany) Year of introduction 1952 (Bayer, Hoffmann-La Roche, and Squibb independently) Drug category Antimycobacterial agent Main uses. For the treatment of tuberculosis as a monotherapy or in combination with other tuberculosis drugs. It is also used to reduce tremors in patients with multiple sclerosis Other brand names Nydrazid,...

Vancomycin Vancocin

Year of discovery ca. 1956 Year of introduction 1958 (as Vancocin by Eli Lilly) Drug category Glycopeptide antibiotic Main uses For the treatment of life-threatening infections by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to all other known antibiotics Related drugs Teicoplanin (Targocid). Vancomycin, the first member of the glycopeptide antibiotic class, was isolated from the soil microbe Amycolatopsis orientalis obtained from the jungles of Borneo. Vancomycin was shown to be bacteriocidal...

Teriparatide Forteo

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model 0 Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Year of discovery 1970s Year of introduction 2002 (Eli Lilly) Drug category Anabolic agent Main uses Treatment of osteoporosis for patients with high risk of fractures Drug category First drug in its class, directly affecting osteoblasts and causing bone growth. The maintenance of strong bones requires optimum calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (P043) levels. The key regulators of these ions in the...

Ancillary Antibiotics

Chloramphenicol, a remarkably simple halogen-containing antibiotic, was isolated in 1947 from the microbe Streptomyces venezu-elae.1 Once the structure of chloramphenicol had been determined, large-scale industrial production by chemical synthesis followed in 1949. Although common in chemical practice, the nitrobenzene (blue) and the dichloro-acetic acid (red) units of chloramphenicol are unusual for a natural product.2 Chloramphenicol is a wide-spectrum antibiotic, active against 95 of...

Enalapril Vasotec

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Year of discovery 1981 Year of introduction 1985 (Merck) Drug category Angiotensin-Converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor Main uses Treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and atherosclerosis Related drugs Captopril (Captopril), Ramipril (Altace), Quinapril (Accupril), Perindopril (Aceon), Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestoretic), Benazepril (Lotensin). Angiotensin II is a very potent human blood pressure regulator that causes contraction of blood vessels and an...

Candesartan Cilexetil Atacand

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Carbon Hydrogen A Oxygen A Nitrogen Year of discovery 1991 Year of introduction 1998 (AstraZeneca) Drug category Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) Main uses Treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure Related drugs Eprosartan (Teveten), Losar an (Cozaar), Olmesartan (Benicar), Telmisartan (Micardis), Valsar an (Diovan). Candesarian cilexeiil belongs to the newest class of pharmaceuticals called angiotensin receptor blockers...

Terbinafine Lamisil

Year of discovery 1984 (Sandoz) Year of introduction 1996 (Novartis) Drug category Allylamine antifungal agent squalene epoxidase inhibitor Main uses For the treatment of fungal infections of the skin (dermatomycosis) and nails (both oral and topical) Related drugs Naftifine, Butenafine. Terbinafine, a totally synthetic allylamine, is a potent antifungal agent used mainly for the treatment of fungal skin and nail infections.1 Risk factors for fungal infection include age (> 70 years), type 2...

Ivermectin Stromectol

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Year of discovery Late 1970s (Merck) Year of introduction 1981 (for animal use), 1987 (for human use) Drug category Broad-spectrum antiparasitic, especially effective against nematodes and ectoparasites Main uses For the treatment of onchocerciasis (river blindness) and strongyloidiasis. Also used in combination with abendazole and diethylcarbamazine against lymphatic filariasis. Related drugs Moxidectin, Milbemycin oxime, Doramectin,...

Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin

Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-filling Model Carbon Hydrogen . Oxygen Nitrogen Year of discovery 1847 (Ascanio Sobrero at University of Torino) Year of introduction 1878 (William Murrell at Westminster Hospital) Drug category Vasodilator Main uses Treatment of angina and congestive heart failure Other brand names Minitran, Nitro-dur, Nitrolingual, Nitromist, Nitrostat Related drugs Isosorbide dinitrate (Bidil, Dilatrate, Isordil), Isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur, Ismo, Monoket)....

And Medicine

Copyright 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Moboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the...

Oseltamivir Tamiflu

Year of discovery Early 1990s by Gllead Sciences Year of introduction 1999 Roche Drug category Neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral Main uses For the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B viral infections Related drugs Zanamivir Relenza , Peramivir. Oseltamivir, a second-generation oral neuramidinase inhibitor, is widely used for the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B viral infections, including avian flu. Influenza is a serious respiratory illness that affects millions of...

Doxycycline Vibramycin

- Carbon Hydrogen A Oxygen A Nitrogen - Carbon Hydrogen A Oxygen A Nitrogen Year of discovery 1962 Pfizer Year of introduction 1967 as Vibramycin Drug category Tetracycline broad-spectrum antibiotic Main uses For the treatment of respiratory tract, urinary tract and eye infections, anthrax, bubonic plague, syphilis, cholera, acne, gonorrhea, elephantiasis, and malaria Other brand names Adoxa, Doryx Related drugs Minocycline Minocin , Lymecycline Tetralysal , Demeclocycline Declomycin . The...