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] Rearrangements

I I Protein Domain Rearrangements I Internal E^S, E^Si+1 Isomerization

| ~| Near-Attack Complex Rearrangements

| Substrate Capture by Active Sites

] Internal Protonation & Deprotonatlon

O Diffusion of H2O Molecule ~ 0.5 nm

| | Bond Stretching Vibrations & Transition-State Lifetimes

Log10 Reaction Time (seconds)

FIGURE 10.1 Timescales for enzyme rate processes. The ranges (shown as blue bars) are based on various rate processes (see Table 10.1). The hypothetical transition-state lifetime (~10-14 s) for bond-breaking roughly corresponds to the time required for the outward motion of an A-B bond-stretching vibration, such that the stretched bond A---- B forms the dissociated species A B. For additional discussion of these processes, see Hammes and Eigen (1963) and Schramm (2005).

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