The Epileptic El Mouse

The epileptic EL mouse is a natural model of human idiopathic epilepsy and partial complex seizures with secondary generalization (6,52). Seizures in EL mice originate in or near the parietal lobe and quickly spread to the hippocampus and other brain regions. The seizures commence with the onset of sexual maturity (50-60 d of age) (6,51-55). The seizures are accompanied by electroencephalograph^ (EEG) abnormalities, vocalization, incontinence, loss of postural equilibrium, excessive salivation, and head, limb, and chewing automatisms (Figure 2) (52,54,56-59). The epilepsy in EL mice also models Gowers' dictum whereby each seizure increases the likelihood of recurrent seizures (6). Adult EL male mice also experience a sexual dysfunction similar to that described in men with temporal lobe epilepsy (11). EL mice express abnormalities of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and develop a hippocampal gliosis

Fig. 2. Epileptic EL mouse. The EL mouse models multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy, exhibiting excessive salivation, and head, limb, swallowing, and chewing automatisms. The arching Straub tail is indicative of seizure spread to spinal cord.

with seizure progression (60-67). The gliosis in EL mice, however, is not associated with obvious hippocampal neuronal loss or synaptic rearrangements to include mossy fiber sprouting (67,68). Gene-environment interactions play a significant role in the determination of seizure frequency and onset in EL mice as with multifactorial human idiopathic epilepsies (6,69). Hence, the EL mouse is a good model for evaluating the effects of dietary therapies on idiopathic epilepsy.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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