Control of Thylakoid Membrane Development and Assembly

Webber Department of Botany and Center for the Study of Early Events in Photosynthesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ85287-1601, USA Department of Biology, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, Essex, UK. ' A. 2. Co-ordinated D. Post-translational 1. III. Photochemical Development of photosynthetically competent thylakoid membranes requires the coordinated synthesis and assembly of a large number of polypeptides of both cytoplasmic and chloroplast origins. Chloroplast and...

Kimiyuki Satoh Department of Biology Okayama University Okayama 700 Japan

Chemical Composition and Polypeptide A. Protein Subunits and Their Primary B. Pigments and Redox IV. Functional Aspects of PS II RC Organization Energy and Electron Transfer A. Energy Transfer and C. Biradical D. Formation of Triplet E. Other Redox Reactions Associated with PS II V. Structural Aspects of Organization Structure of the Primary Donor 203 This chapter provides a brief summary of developments in research on the isolation, structure and function of a pigment-protein complex,...

D Dipolar Coupling Between Yz and the OEC

Dipolar coupling between the OEC and was indicated by a difference in the power saturation characteristics of in the presence and absence of the Mn cluster (Warden et al. 1976, Yocum and Babcock, 1981). This -OEC distance has been estimated to be greater than 10 A because of a lack of broadening of Yz* by the OEC (Hoganson and Babcock, 1988), although the strength of this interaction depends not only on distance but on the g-tensor orientation and anisotropy, hyperfine interactions,...

Ontogenetic Assembly of Thylakoids Viewed in Threedimensions

Initial studies on chloroplast differentiation were for the most part based on electron microscopic analysis of individual chloroplast thin sections. Various strategies for investigating the different developmental stages of chloroplasts include studies during leaf ontogeny under seasonal changes, using leaves of different age from the same plant, tissues of different age from the same leaf, meristematic tissue of different age, and etioplasts during the greening process (see Kutik, 1985). Fig....

Photoactivation of the OEC

Tamura and Cheniae (1987) have proposed a model for the assembly of the Mn cluster that requires at least two steps of photoactivation. The first step generates an unstable intermediate that is further oxidized and stabilized by the second. Two additional Mn2+ are subsequently bound to give amixed valence tetranuclear Mn cluster. Additional light reactions are thought to be required before this cluster reaches the S0 state. Hoganson and Babcock (1989), Nixon and Diner (1992) and Diner and Nixon...

Fatty Acid Desaturation

Glycerolipids that are synthesized on envelope membranes contain 16 0 and 18 1 fatty acids which must be desaturated to polyunsaturated fatty acids. This desaturadon of C16 and C18 fatty acids occurs when esterified to MGDG (for a review, see Heinz 1993). Roughan et al. (1979) first demonstrated that isolated intact spinach chloroplasts can synthesize MGDG containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Heinz and Roughan (1983) further analyzed MGDG synthesized from ,4C -acetate by isolated Solatium...

Spectroscopic Properties of Q

The EPR spectrum of QA of PS II is broadened by an exchange interaction with the non-heme iron (Nugent et al., 1981, Rutherford and Zimmermann, 1984) probably located at a distance of 7 (edge to edge) by analogy with the bacterial reaction centers (Deisenhofer et al., 1984). Two characteristic g-values have been observed for QAFe(II) over the pH range 6-9 (Rutherford and Zimmermann, 1984). A value of g 1.82 with a high field feature at g 1.67 is observed at acid pH (< 7). Upon the addition of...

Core Particles

Core particles with oxygen evolving capacity are usually prepared from BBY-membranes. The preparations according to the various original recipes Ghanotakis et al., 1984,1987a Rogner et al., 1987 Haag et al., 1990 van Leeuwen et al., 1991 Kirilovsky et al., 1992 differ in their protein and pigment composition and aggregation state. The original preparation from spinach according to Ghanotakis et al. 1984, 1987a adaptable to pea Lubbers et al., 1993a is prepared with octylglucoside. The...

References

Alban C, Dorne AJ, Joyard J and Douce R 1989a 14C -acetate incorporation into glycerolipids from cauliflower proplastids and sycamore amyloplasts. FEBS Lett 249 95-99 Alban C, Joyard J and Douce R 1989b Comparison of glycerolipid biosynthesis in non-green plastids from sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus cells and cauliflower Brassica oleracea buds. Biochem J 259 775-783 Andrews J and Mudd JB 1985 Phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in pea chloroplasts. Pathway and localization. Plant Physiol 79 259-265...

Biosynthesis of Thylakoid Membrane Lipids

Roland Douce and Jacques Joyard Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire V g tale, URA CNRS n 576, D partement de Biologie Mol culaire et Structurale, CEA-Centre d'Etudes Nucl aires de Grenoble et Universit Joseph Fourier, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble-cedex 9, France II. Characterization and Biosynthesis of Chloroplast A. Structure and Distribution of Chloroplast B. Biosynthesis of Chloroplast 1. Origin of the Diacylgycerol a. Diacylglycerol Biosynthesis in Chloroplast Envelope b. Possible...

Structure Composition Functional Organization and Dynamic Properties of Thylakoid Membranes

M. van der Staay Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0347, USA I. Structural Organization and Compartmentalization of II. Composition and Distribution of Acyl Lipids in Thylakoid 13 III. The Photosynthetic Electron Transport Cham Components and Functional IV. Composition of the Five Complexes of the Thylakoid V. Lateral Distribution of Protein Complexes Between Grana and Stroma...

A Diacylglycerol Biosynthesis in Chloroplast Envelope Membranes

Phosphatidylglycerol Phosphatidate

The first enzyme of the glycerolipid biosynthetic pathway is a soluble glycerol-3-phosphate acyltrans-ferase, closely associated with the inner envelope membrane, that catalyzes the transfer of oleic acid 18 1 , from 18 1-ACp acyl carrier protein to the sn-1 position of glycerol Frentzen et al., 1983 Frentzen, 1993 producing 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate lysophosphatidic acid . Bertrams and Heinz 1981 first provided biochemical data for the purified chloroplast glycerol-3-phosphate...

A Oxidation ofYz OEC intact

Delosme 1971 found that the fluorescence yield was markedly quenched in the S2 and S3 states ofthe OEC during microsecond flash excitation of dark-adapted Chlorella cells. Such quenching reflects the enhanced concentration of known to be a quencher of fluorescence Butler et al., 1973 . It was first pointed out by Bouges-Bocquet 1980 that this enhanced fluorescence quenching in the and states is a reflection of a lowered equilibrium constant, Kzp, YZP680 YZ H P680 in these states. According to...