Nhok Cells

To determine the effect of STE on Bcl-2 and p53 genes in NHOK cells, NHOK cells were treated with 0 to 200 g ml of STE.51 Keratinocytes were also preincubated with GSPE (50 g ml and 100 g ml) before treatment with STE. A reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to determine the expression of p53 and Bcl-2 genes in NHOK treated with STE and GSPE.51 The differences in the levels of expression of p53 and Bcl-2 in STE treated with and without GSPE was determined...

Asbestos Activates NfkB

The first evidence indicating NF-kB activation by asbestos was provided by Janssen et al.161 in 1995. In this study, they reported that crocidolite asbestos caused a dose-dependent increase in the binding of p50 and p65 proteins to NF-KB-binding DNA elements in hamster tracheal epithelial (HTE) cells. Similarly, Simeonova and Luster162 showed that asbestos-induced NF-kB activation is responsible for the increased expression of the inflammatory cytokine, IL-8, in human pulmonary epithelial...

Asbestos A Potent And Established Carcinogen

Animal and human epidemiologic studies indicate that inhalation of asbestos can cause serious respiratory diseases, including asbestosis, bronchogenic cancer, and mesothelioma.137 138 Exposure to asbestos has also been linked to certain types of tumors that originate in the stomach, throat, and rectum.139 People who are working with asbestos-containing products or who live near asbestos mining manufacturing areas also have a high risk of contracting asbestos-induced lung diseases.140 Asbestos...

Mouse Mammary Gland Organ Culture MMOC Assay

This assay is a good predictor of inhibitors of mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary glands of immature mice respond to hormones and 7,12-dimethylbenz( a )anthracene (DMBA) in whole gland culture through development of mammary alveolar lesions (MAL).25 Inhibition of MAL by extracts or chemopreventive agents is used as a parameter for assessing the efficacy of test agents or extracts.26 Only active plant extracts are subjected to this secondary screening protocol. To date, approximately 18,000...

SlLica And Ros

The importance of ROS in mediating silica-induced lung diseases has been well documented in recent years.121122 In aqueous media, silica has been shown to generate 'OH radicals.123 In addition, phagocytosis of silica activates cell membrane NADPH oxidase, inducing the respiratory burst and the generation of superoxide radicals 1 leading to lipoprotein oxidation.124-126 In addition, a major source of in lung cells is also produced by the respiratory chain in mitochondria. Nitric oxide (NO),...

Preparation Of Smokeless Tobacco Extract

Standardized smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco) was purchased from the University of Kentucky, Tobacco and Health Research Institute (Lexington, KY).29 Quantities of smokeless tobacco were mixed with 5 volumes (5ml g) of 0.10M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and stirred at room temperature for 24h. The pH of the extracts was readjusted as needed to pH 7.0 after 1h of stirring to ensure a physiological pH, and the extracts were centrifuged at 40,000g for 1h. The extracts were reconstituted in...

Aloe

Aloe (Aloe vera) is a cactuslike plant originally indigenous to Africa. Aloe vera is the most prominent among the more than 300 species belonging to this family. It was widely regarded as a master healing plant in folkloric medicine.149 In the last few decades, aloe has gained popularity as an adjunct treatment to heal burns and side effects following radiation therapy. This important application, which correlates with its traditional usage as a remedy to cuts and burns, has gained momentum...

Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum) has a history as a medicinal agent going back thousands of years. Hippocrates, Dioscorides, and other prominent medical experts of ancient and medieval eras deciphered its medicinal uses.60 Garlic is mentioned in the Bible, and it may be one of the most widely used natural supplements. Its first known origin may be Central Asia (3000 B.C.), later spreading to other parts of the world.60 It is a regular part of the diet for most people in Asian and Middle Eastern...

Proctitis

The efficacy of HBO in the management of radiation-induced bowel injury, including proctitis, is less well reported. There is a series of case studies and very small series reporting healing of pain, tenesmus, bleeding, diarrhea, and rectal ulceration.46-51 More significantly, there are a number of retrospective studies describing complete or partial healing of rectal symptoms in patients resistant to conventional therapy for severe injuries. One of the largest retrospective studies describes...

Role Of Cmet Ckit And Egfr

C-Met signaling (Met-HGF SF) has been well studied in various forms of human cancers. c-Met has been found to have a number of biological effects related to the cytoskeleton, for example scattering, cell motility, invasion, migration, and finally metastasis. HGF SF-Met signaling plays an important role in lung cancer (solid tumor) and can invade and metastasize using this signaling pathway (Figure 5.2).24 SCF HGF-Met signaling significantly increases the motility of epithelial cells, which play...

Conclusions

Plants have catered to the medical needs of human civilization since prehistoric times, but it is only during the last 100 years that mankind has begun to scientifically characterize their active principles and put them to use in modern medicine. According to the World Health Organization, up to 80 of the world's population relies mainly on herbal medicine for primary health care. In countries like India, the practitioners of traditional medicine outnumber registered doctors. The World Wildlife...

Camptotheca

Camptotheca acuminata is native to southern China and Tibet, where it is popularly called xi shu, which means happy tree. Preparations made from camptotheca have been used in China as a cancer treatment, especially for cancers of the stomach and liver and leukemia.185 The National Cancer Institute evaluated camptotheca in 1958 and confirmed its anticancer properties. A quinoline alkaloid, camptothecin, was isolated in 1966, and it was found to be responsible for the anticancer activity. Studies...

Mayapple

The mayapple is Minnesota's native plant and ranges from Quebec to Texas and Florida. Podophyllum peltatum is its Latin name. The plant and its constituents have been in the medical literature for more than 250 years. The folkloric use of mayapple derives from various Native American groups, who used the plant both as medicine and poison. During late 19th century, the Penobscot Indians of Maine used underground parts of the mayapple for the treatment of cancer, and it was also used by...

Aspirin

Aspirin and other NSAIDs are all effective to some extent, though analgesics without antiprostaglandin activities, such as acetaminophen, are ineffective. As might be anticipated, activity of NSAIDs seems to be related to the dose, frequency, and duration of administration. However, there have been suggestions that aspirin, particularly in high doses, may incite rectal bleeding earlier due to its antiplatelet effects. However, Ahnen found no evidence for this in his review of the literature in...

Tulsi

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) is the most revered of all sacred medicinal plants in India. In traditional medicine, it is cherished for its holistic healing properties to restore healthy living by warding off imbalances in the body and mind. In Indian herbal medicine, it is used as a remedy for bronchitis, gastric disorders, hepatic disorders, and skin diseases. Tulsi is also considered to be a diaphoretic, an antiperiodic, an anthelmintic, a cardiotonic, and an antipyretic as well as a blood purifier...

Ckit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

At least 70 of small-cell lung cancers express the kit receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF). C-kit is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase. It is found that interactions between kit and its ligand, SCF, are important in the development and maintenance of hematopoietic cells, melanocytes, germ cells, and the interstitial cells. SCF acts either alone or in combination with other growth factors in promoting the survival and self-renewal of stem cells, and the...

Natural Products That Were Developed Into Anticancer Drugs

Nine of the current top-20 drugs, with annual sales of around 16.5 billion, are derived from or based on natural products. Many of the anticancer drugs currently being used or currently being developed were originally derived from nature, mostly from plants. For some other anticancer drugs, nature provided the initial lead from which the analogs were prepared and developed into new drugs. Knowledge of traditional medicine affords a valuable approach to the development of new anticancer drugs....

Smokeless Tobacco And Change In Intracellular Oxidation States By Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

The concentration-dependent effects of STE on the intracellular oxidized states of human keratinocytes were determined using confocal microscopy.40 The intensity of fluorescence reflects the intracellular oxidized state. When cells were treated with concentrations of STE at 250 and 300 g ml, the color and fluorescence intensity of nuclei changed, possibly because of a change FIGURE 7.1 Changes in intracellular redox states of oral human keratinocytes after treatment with smokeless tobacco...

Vinca Rosea

Another plant that changed the course of anticancer research was rosy periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). This common garden plant, also known as Vinca rosea, is native to Madagascar. It has long been prescribed in folk medicine for treating dysentery, menstrual disorders, and diabetes. The discovery of its cancer-fighting properties was serendipitous, and it happened when the plant was being investigated for treatment of diabetes. Dr. Robert L.Noble at the University of Western Ontario received...

Info

Hanahan, D. and Weinberg, R.A., The hallmarks of cancer, Cell, 100, 57-70, 2000. 8. Golub, T.R., Slonim, D.K., Tamayo, P, Huard, C., Gaasenbeek, M., Mesirov, J.P., Coller, H., Loh, M.L., Downing, J.R., Caligiuri, M.A., Bloomfield, C.D., and Lander, E.S., Molecular classification of cancer class discovery and class prediction by gene expression monitoring, Science, 286, 531-537, 1999. 9. Bhattacharjee, A., Richards, W.G., Staunton, J., Li, C., Monti, S., Vasa, P., Ladd, C., Beheshti, J., Bueno,...

Crc Press

Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge's collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Phytopharmaceuticals in cancer chemoprevention edited by Debasis Bagchi, Harry G.Preuss. p. cm. (Modern nutrition science) ISBN 0-8493-1560-3 (alk. paper) 1. Cancer Chemoprevention....

Contributors

University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, Texas University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research (INRAN) Rome, Italy University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin University of Bern Bern, Switzerland InterHealth Research Center Benicia, California Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, Missouri VA Medical Center Kansas...

Oral Leukoplakia

Oral leukoplakia is a white lesion of the mouth that has the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma. The rate of malignant transformation is highly variable in different populations and ranges from less than 1 to approximately 20 in 1 to 30 years.230 A number of small uncontrolled trials have reported some degree of clinical improvement in 44 to 71 of those treated after supplementation with P-carotene 30 to 90mg d 231232 or combinations of P-carotene and other antioxidants233 234...