Free Radicals In Biological Systems And In The Environment

A free radical is an atom or molecule that possesses one or more unpaired electrons. Since electrons are more stable when paired together in orbitals, radicals are generally unstable and are therefore highly reactive with a variety of substrates. Free radicals of importance in biological systems include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS include superoxide anion X hydroxyl radical ('OH), lipid radical (LOO^), peroxy (XOO^) radicals, and singlet oxygen (:O2). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) are not truly free radicals, but they are lumped with the ROS because of their increased reactivity with biomolecules. RNS include nitric oxide (NO), a diatomic free radical that is synthesized by a family of enzymes called NO synthases (NOS), and peroxynitrite (ONOO ) formed by the reaction of NO with . Nitrite radical

Health And Fitness 101

Health And Fitness 101

Self-improvement is a thing which you must practice throughout your life because once you started to believe that you are perfect then, things will start to become complex. You need to know that no one is perfect and no one can be perfect.

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