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Structure types found in Premnesiophyceae (Prymnesin), Cryptophyta (hormo-thamnione) and Ciliophora (euplotin). glimpse of it in a few reported examples. Prymnesins, toxins produced by Prymnesium sp., have been shown to have polycyclic ether structures resembling those found in dinoflagellates by Yasumoto's group 44 . Gerwick's group 45 isolated highly cytotoxic styrylchromones called hormothamniones from the marine cryptophyte Chrysophaeum taylosi. The ciliate Euplotes crassus produces...

Info

In vivo Activity of the Halichondrins The antitumour activities of halichondrin B (1) and homohalichondrin B (2) were initially investigated by Uemura and Hirata 2 using murine B-16 melanoma, P388 leukaemia and L-1210 models. A variety of regimens were used via intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) routes, and excellent results were obtained against all three tumours at dosages as low as 5 g kg, with increases in life expectancy (T C) of up to 300 recorded. The NCI involvement in the...

WConotoxin Mviia From Marine Snail Venom to Analgesic Drug

Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA A 25 amino acid peptide, ra-conotoxin MVIIA, from the venom of a predatory cone snail, Conus magus, is a marine natural product in advanced development as a therapeutic agent. The current status (as of March 2000) is that clinical trials by a biotechnology company, Neurex, are complete for two therapeutic indications, and a new drug application has been submitted to the US Federal Drug Administration. Although originally...

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Dolastatin 10 (r h) Symplostatin 1 (r ch3) Dolastatin 10 (r h) Symplostatin 1 (r ch3) Fig. 1. Some of the highly active anticancer compounds found in seahares have their origins in the dietary blue-greens. Symplostatin, a close analogue of dolastatin 10, is found in a marine cyanobacterium Symploca hydnoides. All these observations led to a high hope to produce the compounds by culturing microalgae. Biodiversity and Chemical Diversity of Microalgae Microalgae play the major role in the primary...

Zoanthamines Antiosteoporotic Alkaloids

Makoto Kuramotoa, Kohji Yamaguchib, Tomoko Tsujib, Daisuke Uemurac a Advanced Instrumentation Center for Chemical Analysis, Ehime University, Matsuyama b Sagami Chemical Research Center, Sagamihara and c Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan Zoanthamine (1) (fig. 1), a new class of alkaloid, was first isolated by Rao et al. 1 from an Indian zoanthid Zoanthus sp. which also contained zoanthenamine (2) and zoanthamide (3) 2 . Interestingly, zoanthamines inhibited the...

Mplc

(silica gel, 20 7 3 CHCI3 acetone MeOH) PLC dolastatin H (18) 0.3 mg isodolastatin H (19) 0.3 mg Fig. 7. Isolation procedure for dolastatin H (18) and isodolastatin H (19). this toxicity test, in vivo antitumor activities of 18 and 19 were examined. Whereas no significant activity was shown for dolastatin H (18), isodolastatin H (19) exhibited antitumor activity with a T C of 141 at a dose of 6 mg kg day against P388 leukemia (i.p. tumor inoculation-i.v. drug administration). This antitumor...

Ci

Cytotoxic depsipeptides isolated from marine sponge and cyanobacteria. of 3.7 jg ml. Bioassay-guided separation of the ethyl acetate-soluble portion afforded a cytotoxic depsipeptide named arenastatin A (7) (1.4 x 10-3 based on the AcOEt-soluble portion) which showed extremely potent cytotoxic activity against KB cell line with an IC50 value of 5 pg ml (fig. 3) 16 . In 1990, the Merck group isolated an antifungal depsipeptide named cryptophycin from culture of a terrestrial...

Microalgae as a Drug Source

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I., USA Recently, microalgal metabolites are attracting enormous attention, and the topic has been discussed by a number of authors. This author also reviewed the chemical and biochemical aspects of microalgal metabolites 1-3 . Therefore, emphasis in this chapter will be placed on some issues concerned with drug screening. There are a couple of reasons behind the surge of interest in microagal metabolites. First, the...

Aquacultural Production of Bryostatin 1 and Ecteinascidin 743

CalBioMarine Technologies, Inc., Carlsbad, Calif., USA Is it possible to grow drugs from the sea This question, posed in 1986 by a Sterling Pharmaceuticals (Kodak) executive, led the author and coworkers to an investigation of using aquaculture techniques to grow marine organisms for their bioactive chemical constituents. In addition to the questions of technical feasibility, what would the costs be And was there potential for profit from such endeavors In the mid-1980s, bryostatin 1, a complex...

Antimycin-type Depsipeptides Deepsea-derived Bacteria

Enzyme inhibitors and agents targetting other therapeutic areas. Although the majority of biomedically relevant marine microbial metabolites reported to date show activities against cancer or infectious diseases, a growing number of molecules have been shown to act on more diverse biochemical targets including specific enzymes. Enzyme inhibitors have been reported from both marine fungi and bacteria tables 1, 2 and one such compound is described below. In addition, a compound with...

Drugs from the

Editor Nobuhiro Fusetani, Tokyo 74 figures, 1 in color, and 10 tables, 2000 r-'ruihi r i. F i r iindon Yort New Dchi I - Bamluid - SjnnapoF - Tok n - Sydney Laboratory of Aquatic Natural Products Chemistry Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Drugs from the sea editor, Nobuhiro Fusetani. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 3805570988 hard cover alk. paper 1. Marine...