Marine algaederived biomaterials for bone tissue engineering applications

The marine environment is rich with mineralizing organisms of porous structures, some of which are currently being used as bone graft materials and others are used in their early stages of development for bone repair. Some species of red algae (phylum Rhodophyta), specifically a group of coralline algae deposits calcium carbonate, have been used in bone tissue engineering (Clarke et al., 2011). Felicio-Fernandes et al. (2000) reported that calcium phosphate compounds such as hydroxyapatite were...

References

M., Zimmet, P., and Shaw, J. (2006). Metabolic syndrome A new worldwide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet. Med. 23, 469-480. Anantharaman, P., Karthikai, G., Manivannan, D., and Balasubramanian, T. (2011). Vitamin-C content of some marine macroalgae from Gulf of Mannar, marine biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India. Plant Arch. 11(1), 343-346. Bandera, E. V., Kushi, L. H., Moore, D. F., Gifkins, D. M., and McCullough, M....

Medicinal Effects Of Phlorotannins

Brown algal phlorotannins have been extensively studied for their potential health benefits and reportedly they have shown promising effects against radical-mediated oxidative stress, photodamage, cancer, allergy, diabetes, inflammation, and viral and microbial infections. Having vast range of biological activities, phlorotannins are believed to be the most promising candidates to be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This section is covering up the major biological activities of...

Anticoagulant Activity Of Marine Algae

After the investigation of blood anticoagulant properties from marine brown algae, it has been reported that SPs derived from marine algae are alternative sources for manufacture of novel anticoagulant drugs (Church et al., 1989 Matsubara, 2004 Nishino et al., 2000). Anticoagulant activity is among the most widely studied properties of SPs and anticoagulants from marine algae have previously been reviewed (McLellan and Jurd, 1992 Mestechkina and Shcherbukhin, 2010). Various anticoagulant SPs...

Antiobesity activity

Obesity may occur in any gender, however, it is more likely to occur in females (Popkin and Doak, 1998 Rennie and Jebb, 2005). Obesity among females (from teens and seniors) continues to increase in many industrialized and developing countries, which cause a worrying health trend (Kelishadi, 2007). A detrimental effect of obesity on female reproductive system has been demonstrated consistently (Pettigrew and Hamilton-Fairley, 1997). Further, it is reported that media and sociocultural influence...

Anticancer effects

Cancer is possibly one of the most dangerous diseases, and cure for it has not yet found. Therefore, prevention of cancer through good diet practices is a well-promoted chemoprevention strategy. Marine edible seaweeds are promising candidates in this regard. Phlorotannins isolated from edible marine alga E. cava (dioxinodehydroeckol and have shown antiproliferative effects on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Among them, dioxinodehydroeckol has shown stronger ability in inducing apoptosis...

Phlorotannins

Marine brown algae accumulate a variety of phloroglucinol-based polyphenols, as phlorotannins of low, intermediate, and high molecular weight containing both phenyl and phenoxy units. Based on the means FIGURE 18.1 Anticoagulant SPs from marine algae (A) fucoidan, (B) carrageenan, and (C) ulvan. FIGURE 18.1 Anticoagulant SPs from marine algae (A) fucoidan, (B) carrageenan, and (C) ulvan. of linkage, phlorotannins can be classified into four subclasses such as fuhalols and phlorethols...

Influence on glycemic control

Dilution and slowing down the action of carbohydrases in the gut by seaweed fiber would have a positive impact on regulating the blood glucose level. Therefore, control of starch digestion in the diet can help to control blood glucose in type II diabetes. Five grams of sodium alginate administered daily to type II diabetic patients was found to prevent a postprandial increase of glucose and insulin, and to slow down gastric transit (Torsdottir et al., 1991). Hydrolysates of agar resulted in...

Conclusion

Nowadays, process of finding new sources of o-3 PUFAs has been continuing. Their major commercial sources are fish and fish fat. EPA and DHA produced from fish oil are used as nutraceuticals and functional ingredients in industrial foods. However, their wide usage as food additives is limited for the typical fishy smell, disagreeable taste, and finally for the oxidative nonstability. Further, chemical forms of PUFAs are important for their better utilization by human. Nevertheless, the growing...

Antioxidant effects

Oxidative stress is a primary cause for development of various human chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancers, and neurode-generative diseases. Therefore, wide range of potential metabolites has been evaluated against oxygen-induced damage and hence lowers the risk of human chronic diseases. Among them, brown algae serve as an important bioresource of antioxidative phlorotannins with significant FIGURE 8.1 Structures of phlorotannins isolated from marine brown algae....

Amino acid composition of seaweeds

All amino acids are presented in seaweeds (Matanjun et al., 2009). With respect to total EAAs in the FAO WHO (1991) pattern, seaweeds (especially red and green) seem to be able to contribute to adequate levels of total EAA (Wong and Cheung, 2000). On the contrary, Matanjun et al. (2009) reported higher amounts of amino acid (AA) in green seaweeds than in red and brown. Despite this, many papers indicated that EAAs in red algae represented almost half of total AAs and it meant the ratio of EAA...

Fucoidan

It is a sulfated fucopolysaccharide and is the subject of extensive research for its anticancer properties. Studies have shown fucoidan to be effective in stopping the growth of tumors, inducing cancer cell apoptosis (programmed cell death) in leukemia, stomach, and colon cancer lines, and in interfering with metastasis by inhibiting interaction between tumor cells and the host tissue basement membrane. Fucoidan from Laminaria angu-stata is composed mainly of fucose galactose sulfate (9 1 9)...

Polysaccharides

Presently sulfated polysaccharides are the group which is identified as economically most important among other ingredients found in algae that have been extensively used in the industry for food and medicinal purposes. Red algae and brown algae are the classes that produce these polysaccharides of interest in higher concentrations. These polysacchar-ides act as dietary fiber as they are not digested in the upper digestive tract but may be degraded by the colonic bacteria to some extent in the...

Niranjan Rajapakse1 and SeKwon Kimt

Intervention of Seaweed to Enhance III. Dietary Fiber in Seaweed Helps to A. Reduces the risk of colorectal cancer 23 B. Suppresses gastrointestinal inflammation 23 C. Encourages the action of probiotics 24 IV. Nutrition-Related other Health Benefits of Seaweed 25 A. Reduction of obesity by bringing down the B. Reduction of lipid absorption and cardiovascular diseases 26 C. Influence on glycemic control 26 References 27 Abstract Seaweed is a famous delicacy...

Vitamin Composition In Seaweed

There is only few published data concerning vitamin content and bio-availability of vitamin forms contained in edible seaweeds. Generally, seaweeds contain both water- and fat-soluble vitamins, B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, provitamin A, and vitamin E, but some of them only in relatively low content. A. Factors influencing vitamin content in seaweed The composition and therefore the vitamin profile of seaweeds vary and are affected by algal species, algal grown stage, geographic area and...

Antihypertensive and antihypercholesterolemic activities

Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important physiological role in regulation of blood pressure by converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Further, ACE is implicated in cell oxidative stress, augmenting the generation of ROS and peroxynitrite and also in thrombosis, during which induces platelet activation, aggregation, and adhesion (McFarlane et al., 2003). Inhibition of ACE is considered to be a useful therapeutic approach in the treatment of...

Diabetic foot ulcer

Biofilms have been implicated in numerous chronic infections including cystic fibrosis and prostatitis. Through interactions within a biofilm, the resident population of bacteria is likely to benefit from increased metabolic efficiency, substrate accessibility, enhanced resistance to environmental stress and inhibitors, and an increased ability to cause infection and disease. Dermal wounds often provide an ideal environment for bacteria to exist as a community, which may have a significant...

Marine Algae As Food Health Promoters

Ancient times witnessed the health benefits linked to seaweed consumption by Eastern countries. This utilization of marine algae can be traced back to the fourth century in Japan and the sixth century in China, although archeological evidences also indicate that seaweeds were included in folk medicine for many thousands of years in Japan, China, Egypt, and India (Fakoya et al., 2011). Today, Japan, China, and the Republic of Korea are the largest consumers of seaweeds as food (FAO, 2003)....

Chemical Properties

Unlike plants where the main storage compound is starch, chromists store laminarin (hence the name Laminaria) in the form of chains of mannitol and glucose, and the organelles used for the storage are pyrenoids. Apart from the laminarin in pyrenoids, the cell walls of chromists contain algin, a gum used as a thickener and emulsifier in the food and cosmetics industry (www.biology-online.org). East Asian cultures have traditionally exploited kelp for food and medicinal values. On an average, 100...

Osteoporosis Treatment Marine Algal Compounds

Jayachandran Venkatesan* and Se-Kwon Kim*'t'1 II. Treatment for Osteoporosis 418 IV. Marine Compound for Osteoporosis 420 A. Bone mineral density 420 B. Rich mineral extracts of marine algae 420 C. Osteoblast differentiation 420 D. Osteoclast differentiation in osteoporosis 422 V. Conclusion 423 Acknowledgment 424 References 424 Abstract Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases that occur due to imbalance during bone formation and bone resorption. About half of all women over the...

Algae As Functional Food The Preventing Disease Potential

Experts around the world have joined efforts to provide tools for international organisms as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization to make recommendations regarding the prevention of chronic diseases and the reduction of their impact. Information has been gathered, reviewed, and systematized in order to have an overview of the so-called noncommunicable diseases (NCD) (WHO, 2003). According to their report, changes in dietary and lifestyle...

Profiles And Bioavailability Of Fucoxanthin

Fucoxanthin (Fig. 9.1) is one of the most abundant carotenoids contributing around 10 estimated total production of carotenoids in nature (Matsuno, 2001). It has a unique structure including an unusual allenic bond and a 5,6-monoepoxide in its molecule. For different brown algal strains, the compositions and profile of fucoxanthin were found to be different. Tsukui et al. reported that Sargassum horneri had a remarkably higher level of fucoxanthin content (3.7 mg g) in comparison with other...

Potential Of Seaweeds As A Source To Develop Functional Foods

There has been a combined effort among biochemists, biologists, food technologists, and nutritionists to explore and utilize varying food sources of both terrestrial and marine origin to cater the demand from the consumers who eagerly look forward to have optimum nutrition through their dietary interventions. Further, they quest for health benefits associated with these food sources knowing the current need for molecules with novel modes of action to face emerging diseases, seeking proactive...

Seaweeds As A Source Of Bioactive Sulfated Polysaccharides

Sulfated polysaccharides play storage and structural roles in seaweeds and may exhibit many interesting biological properties. As mentioned above, seaweeds are the main source of sulfated polysaccharides in vegetables thus different amounts of sulfated heteropolysaccharides can be found in green seaweeds (Chlorophyta), while other sulfated polysac-charides such as laminaran, alginate, and fucan are present in brown seaweeds (Phaeophyta) and sulfated galactans such as agar and carra-geenan...

Marine microalgae and their antiallergic properties

Microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioac-tive macromolecules in marine resources, including carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, chlorophylls, vitamins, and unique pigments (Kay, 1991). Thus, they have been used as additives in a variety of human foods and animal feeds. Ingestion of various edible microalgae not only supplies protein and other nutrients but also modulates both adaptive and innate aspects of immunity (Price et al., 2002)....

Marine macroalgae as crude materials with antiallergic activities

Although marine algae have been believed to be safe and efficient agents for antiallergic treatment, they have not been as extensively studied as terrestrial plants. Recently, a number of marine macroalgae have been studied for their capability against allergic reactions (Kimiya et al., 2008 Sugiura et al., 2006b). Among them, Petalonia binghamiae, Eisenia arborea, and Sargassum thunbergii were found to be effective inhibitors of hista-mine and p-hexosaminidase release from mast cells....

Antiallergic effects

Allergic diseases are affecting approximately one-third of the general population in the world, and due to environmental changes and food habits, the prevalence and incidents of allergies are increasing. Wealth of research has been done to find antiallergic compounds, and phlorotan-nins or phlorotannin extracts from edible brown algae have shown promising potential in antiallergic therapy in vivo and in vitro models. Hyaluronidase enzyme is known to play an important role in allergic reaction,...

Red macroalgae

The importance of red macroalgae as a source of novel anti-HSV agents has been recognized and reported by many researchers. According to Serkedjieva (2000), the water extract of Polysiphonia den date exhibited selective inhibition on the reproduction of HSV-1 and HSV-2 at their effective concentration 50 (EC50) range of 8.7-47.7 mg ml. The inhibition affected adsorption as well as intracellular stages of viral replication. Likewise, methanol extract of Symphyocladia latiuscula and its fractions...

Potential antiallergic compounds derived from marine macroalgae

Brown algae have been recognized as a rich source of phlorotannins, which are formed by the polymerization of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihy-droxybenzene) monomer units and biosynthesized through the acetate-malonate pathway. Notably, phlorotannins exhibited versatile beneficial bioactivities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihuman immunodeficiency virus, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, and antihypertensive (Vo and Kim, 2010). In relation to antiallergic properties,...

Introduction

Marine algae have provided great biological diversity for sampling in the discovery phase of drug development (Munro et al., 1987). Marine organisms in general have been an important source of compounds with potential antiviral and anticancer activities (Von Vaupel Klein, 1987). Certain seaweeds are not only significant sources of essential proteins, vitamins, and minerals, but several species of algae also produce or contain secondary metabolites, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins with...

Griffithsia Sp Seaweed

Functional foods Opportunities and challenges. online cited on 28th May 2011, Available at Berg, H. V. D., Brandsen, L., and Sinkeldam, B. J. (1991). Vitamin B-12 content and bioavailability of spirulina and nori in rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 6, 314-318. Buck, C. B., Thompson, C. D., Roberts, J. N., Muller, M., Lowy, D. R., and Schiller, J. T. (2006). Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2, 671-680. Cabrita, M. T., Vale, C., and Rauter, A....

Factors influencing the amino acid and protein content

Very common seaweeds, which are used as human food, are species of red algae Porphyra (nori), brown algae Laminaria (kombu), and Undaria (wakame) (FAO, 2002). USDA (2010) shows that the raw seaweed Undaria spp. contains approximately 3.0 of proteins and, with regard to 80 moisture content, it has about 15.2 of protein of dry matter. Admittedly, protein values range from 5 to 47 according to the species, environmental conditions, habitats, maturity, and applied methods used for protein and amino...

Halogenated furanones

Halogenated compounds elatol extracted from the marine red algae Laurencia majuscule elatol has shown activity against the human pathogenic bacteria species Staphylococcus epidermis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Salmonella, whereas iso-obtusol shown action on K. pneumonia and Salmonella species (Vairappan, 2003). Halogenated furanone isolated from the marine algae Delisea pulchra has shown broad spectrum antibiotic action against the bacterial bio film formation, quorum sensing (QS), and swarming,...

Skin whitening activity

Skin whitening has been in practice around the world with Asia as the largest market. As much Asian female preferred more fair skin tone, skin whitening product has become and continues to be the best selling skin care products in Asia (Wang et al., 1997). Tyrosinase inhibition is the most common approach to achieve skin hypo-pigmentation as this enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of pigmentation. Despite the large number of tyrosinase inhibitors in vitro, only a few are able to show...

Antidiabetic effects

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which can damage many systems in the body, such as blood vessels and nerves. It is one of the world's most serious health concerns, developing increasingly with the dietary patterns and age. The control of blood glucose levels is very important in hyperglycemic patients, and a-glucosidase inhibitors are a cost-effective means to preventing the progression of diabetes. Fucodiph-loroethol G (IC50 19.52 pM), dieckol (IC50 10.79 pM), 6,6'-bieckol...

Microalgae

The symbiotic microalga Symbiodinium sp., which is a type of symbiotic zooxanthellae, is found in a wide range of marine invertebrates. Dinofla-gellates are widely known to be a rich source of biologically active and structurally unique secondary metabolites (Kita and Uemura, 2005, 2006 Uemura, 2006). Some dinoflagellates were cultured under artificial conditions with seawater medium, and the alga body was then centrifuged and extracted with 80 aqueous EtOH to collect metabolites. Symbioimines...

Therapeutic Potential Of Marine Algae

Marine algae consist of numerous bioactive substances for known and unknown applications in medical and pharmacological fields. Natural products from marine algae can be used as pharmacological ingredients materials for bone health or as functional foods for bone-strengthening applications. Marine algae have contributed numerous therapeutic compounds for the treatment of multiple disease categories such as antitumor Fuller et al., 1994, Guardia et al., 1999 , anticancer Gerwick et al., 1994 ,...

Antiviral activity

Infection by certain human papilloma virus HPV types in female genital has been associated with cervical cancer, hence HPV prevention has received great attention from scientific studies Lehtinen and Dillner, 2002 . The first generation of HPV vaccine is currently available on the market to prevent HPV infection Paczos et al., 2010 . However, high cost of vaccine has been a cause for concern and will be too expensive for use in the developing world. Therefore, the search for potential anti-HPV...

Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity

Anticoagulants are substances that prevent coagulation that is, they stop blood from clotting Desai, 2004 . Therefore, they are a group of pharmaceuticals that can be used in vivo as a medication for thrombotic disorders. Heparin, a highly sulfated polysaccharide present in mammalian tissues, is one of the commonly used drugs of the choice in prevention of throm-boembolic disorders Lee et al., 2008b . However, there are some well-documented problems related to its clinical application Alban et...

Seaweed as a Source of Novel Nutraceuticals Sulfated Polysaccharides and Peptides

Gomez-Ordonez, and P. Ruperez1 A. Seaweeds as an underexploited bioresource 326 B. Nutritional assessment of seaweeds 326 II. Seaweeds as a Source of Bioactive Sulfated Polysaccharides 328 A. Preparation of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds 328 B. Biological activity of sulfated polysaccharides III. Edible Seaweeds as Potential Sources of Bioactive Peptides 330 A. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antihypertensive activities different approaches 331 IV. Conclusion...

Marine Algal Fucoidans As Potential Mmpis

Marine algae are reported to produce different polysaccharides including alginates, laminarans, and fucoidans. They usually contain large proportions of l-fucose and sulfate, together with minor amounts of other sugars such as xylose, galactose, mannose, and glucuronic acid. These algal polysaccharides have been attributed with many biological activities such as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antitumoral, and antiviral activities. Especially fucoidans from marine algae have been reported to...

Anticancer activity

Cancers can be defined as diseases in which unremitting clonal expansion of somatic cells kills by invading, subverting, and eroding normal tissues Evan and Vousden, 2001 . It has been documented that apoptosis programmed cell death is a key process in cancer development and progression. Inactivation of apoptosis is considered to be one of the six fundamental hallmarks of cancer, and therefore, apoptosis is a major target of cancer therapy development Brown and Attardi, 2005 . Hence, developing...

Seaweed Vitamins as Nutraceuticals

Importance of Vitamins for Humans 358 A. Function of vitamins in human body 358 B. Vitamin requirements for humans 359 III. Vitamin Composition in Seaweed 360 A. Factors influencing vitamin content in seaweed 360 B. Bioavailability and absorption of vitamins 361 C. Vitamin composition of seaweed 362 D. Antioxidant activity of some vitamins contained IV. Conclusions 366 References 366 Abstract Seaweeds are a good source of some water- fy, B2, B12, C and fat- soluble b-carotene with vitamin A...

Medicinal Effects of Peptides from Marine Microalgae

Se-Kwon Kim 't'1 and Kyong-Hwa Kangt II. Potential Functional Peptides from Microalgae 316 A. Bioactive peptides from microalgae 316 B. Antioxidant activity of the peptides from C. Antihypertensive activity of peptides from D. Anticancer activities of the peptide from E. Protective effects of peptide from microalgae III. Conclusions 320 References 321 Abstract Nowadays, there are numerous commercial applications of micro algae, and they have been used to enhance the nutritional value of food...

Sulfated polysaccharides

In the field of pharmacology, the biologically active polysaccharides PSs that are derived from natural sources have attained a special place for the development of drug lead molecules. Marine macroalgae contain a significant amount of soluble PSs and have potential function as dietary fiber. Specially, brown marine algae are known to produce functional PSs such as alginates and fucoidans. Seaweed-derived PSs have been FIGURE 16.1 Monomeric units of marine-algae derived SPs A fucoidan, B...

Marine Algal Sources for Treating Bacterial Diseases

Marine Algal Sources as Therapeutics 73 III. Types of Marine Algae used for Antibacterial A. Phaeophyta brown algae 73 B. Rhodophyta red algae 73 C. Chlorophyta green algae 73 IV. Bioactive Compounds of Marine Algae 74 D. Halogenated furanones 75 V. Marine Algae Against Human Pathogenic Drug Multidrug-Resistant Strains 76 VI. Marine Algae in Controlling Biofilm Antifouling VII. Algal Sources for Treating Fish Bacterial Disease 79 VIII. Conclusion 80 Acknowledgments 80 References 81...

Chapter

Biological Activities and Potential Health Benefits of Fucoxanthin Derived from Marine Brown Algae Se-Kwon Kim 't'1 and Ratih Pangestuti II. Profiles and Bioavailability of Fucoxanthin 113 III. Biological Activities of Fucoxanthin 115 A. Antioxidant activity 115 B. Anticancer activity 117 C. Anti-inflammatory activity 118 D. Antiobesity activity 119 E. Neuroprotective effect 120 F. Antiangiogenic activity 121 G. Skin protective effect 122 H. Other biological activities 122 IV. Conclusions and...