Biofilm is a complex, dynamically interactive multicellular community protected within a heterogeneous exopolysaccharide matrix. Its formation results in the genesis or perpetuation of infection, enhancement of inflammation, and tissue damage or death. Industrial financial losses result from biofilm formation; however, the consequences in the medical realm are equally devastating. The relation of biofilm to patients with chronic kidney disease is often covert and extends beyond the colonization of hemodialysis circuits and vascular accesses. Urinary tract device and vascular access related biofilms may also increase the burden of cardiovascular risk borne by chronic kidney disease patients, synergizing with the chronic inflammatory state already incurred by these individuals. Current anti-infective strategies are aimed at rapid killing planktonic forms of microorganisms without specifically targeting the sessile forms that perpetuate their planktonic brethren (Tapia and Yee, 2006).
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