Other

As a part of wide screening of seaweed extracts, 47 marine macroalgae extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 RT and integrase (Ahn et al., 2002). Results clearly showed that one of four Chlorophyta, eight of 17 Phaeophyta, and six of 26 Rhodophyta species showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 RT. In addition, among these 47 algae extracts, five species (E. cava, I. okamurae, Sargassum confusum, Sargassum hemiphyl-lum, Sargassum ringgoldianum) were able to inhibit the activity of HIV-1 integrase. Moreover, in vitro studies confirmed that extracts of Bossiella sp. and Chondria crassicaulis successfully prevented the MT4 cells from HIV-1 induced cytopathic effects in case of noncytotoxic concentrations. Following these screening results, a carmalol derivative, diphlorethohydroxy-carmalol, was isolated from brown alga, I. okamurae (Ahn et al., 2006), as mentioned earlier which urges the further isolation processes for elucidation of active compounds of these extracts.

Further, two diterpenes, named (6R)-6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (DT1) and (6R)-6-acetoxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (DT2), were isolated from the brown alga Dictyota menstrualis (Pereira et al., 2004). It has been reported that DT1 and DT2 inhibited the virus replication with EC50 values of 40 and 70 mM, respectively, in addition to HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10 and 35 pM. Another study reported a dolabellane diterpene, 8,10,18-trihydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene, from brown alga Dictyota pfaffii with a HIV-1 infection inhibitory effect with an EC50 of 8.4 and 1.7 p.M in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages, respectively. Moreover, this diterpene inhibited the HIV-1 RT activity with an IC50 of 16.5 mM (Barbosa et al., 2004).

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