Extracts of Marine Algae Show Inhibitory Activity Against Osteoclast Differentiation

Tomoyuki Koyama1

Contents I. Introduction 444

II. Methods for Assaying Osteoblasts and

Osteoclasts In Vitro 446

III. Microalgae 447

IV. Macroalgae 449

V. Conclusion 452 References 452

Abstract Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxan-thin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of

Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan

1 Corresponding author: Tomoyuki Koyama, E-mail address: [email protected]

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 64 © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

ISSN 1043-4526, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00034-X Ail rights reserved.

Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteo-porosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariecto-mized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

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