The encounter between the humans and the infectious agents is known from the ancient times. There are various types of infectious agents like bacteria, virus, and fungi which cause various types of diseases in humans, and the outcome of the disease symptoms varies from disease causing agents (Nelson and Williams, 2001; Nene, 2007). Humans have produced various types of treatments/remedies for different types of bacterial diseases from ancient times by using variety of practices like Ayurveda depending upon the availability of the natural resources in those countries (Gopal et al., 2008; Kerr and Kerr, 1999).

Irrational use of antibiotics from biological sources or by chemical synthesis for treating different bacterial diseases resulted in the development of the drug/multidrug-resistant strains, posing great challenge to cure the bacterial diseases. Considering novel mechanisms of action, drug resistance, toxicity, production, and cost-affectivity, various researchers from different parts of the globe turned their eyes on the diverse marine fauna and flora having potential therapeutic values. The cutting edge technological developments in science helped the researchers to discover the untapped antimicrobial potentials of marine algal sources in the development of novel antibiotic compounds (Hornsey and Hide, 1974; Morse et al., 1979; Troxler and Lester, 1967).

This chapter is focused on the marine algal sources for treating bacterial diseases, and emphasis would be on marine algae and their extracts/bioactive compounds treating various types of bacterial diseases.

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