The goals of osteoporosis treatment are to control pain from the disease, reduce bone loss, and prevent bone fractures with medicines or hormone therapies. There are several types of treatments for osteoporosis including most famous bisphosphonates, estrogen agonists/antagonists, parathyroid hormone, hormone therapy, and recently developed receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) inhibition. Estrogen agonists/antagonists in combination with estrogen for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis have also been studied (Stovall and Pinkerton, 2008). Bazedoxifene for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis (Gennari et al., 2008), parathyroid hormone (Black et al., 2003; Finkelstein et al., 2003; Horwitz etal., 2010; Neer et al., 2001), estrogen therapy (Eskridge et al., 2010; Genant et al., 1997; Lindsay, 1987; Lindsay and Tohme, 1990), hormone therapy (Engel et al., 2011; Pentti et al., 2009), and recently developed RANKL inhibitory (McClung, 2006, 2007) treatment options are currently available for osteoporosis treatment.
Among this bisphosphonates are the primary drugs used to both prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Bisphospho-nates taken orally, once a week or once a month, include alendronate (Fosamax), ibandronate (Boniva), and risedronate (Actonel). Bisphospho-nates given through a vein (intravenously) are taken less often (Gass and Dawson-Hughes, 2006; Recker et al., 2009; Society, 2003). Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption and are therapeutically effective in diseases of increased bone turnover, such as Paget's disease and hypercalcemia of malignancy (Hughes et al., 1995). In the recent years, a number of research articles have been published related to the treatment of osteoporosis (Barzel, 1988; Hodsman et al, 2005; Njeh et al, 1997; Pfeifer et al, 2004; Prestwood et al., 1995; Rubin and Bilezikian, 2003).
The adverse side effects of bisphosphonates are renal toxicity, acute-phase reactions, gastrointestinal toxicity, hypocalcemia, ocular complications, asthma erythema, phlebitis, altered taste, and central nervous system side effects. The osteonecrosis of the jaw is the emerging one (Diel et al., 2007; Tanvetyanon and Stiff, 2006). To overcome this kind of problem, researchers are now turning toward nature-based drugs.
Was this article helpful?