Marine Algal Sources for Treating Bacterial Diseases

M. L. Arvinda Swamy1

Contents I. Introduction 72

II. Marine Algal Sources as Therapeutics 73

III. Types of Marine Algae used for Antibacterial

Screening 73

A. Phaeophyta (brown algae) 73

B. Rhodophyta (red algae) 73

C. Chlorophyta (green algae) 73

IV. Bioactive Compounds of Marine Algae 74

A. Sesquiterpenes 74

B. Phlorotannins 74

C. Bromoditerpenes 74

D. Halogenated furanones 75

E. Algal lectins 75

V. Marine Algae Against Human Pathogenic Drug/ Multidrug-Resistant Strains 76

VI. Marine Algae in Controlling Biofilm/Antifouling

Bacteria 77

VII. Algal Sources for Treating Fish Bacterial Disease 79

VIII. Conclusion 80 Acknowledgments 80 References 81

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

1 Corresponding author: M. L. Arvinda Swamy, E-mail address: [email protected]

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 64 © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

ISSN 1043-4526, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00006-5 All rights reserved.

Abstract Microorganisms are the causative agents for various types of diseases in humans, animals, and plants. The invention of antibiotics against the bacterial diseases in the early twentieth century improved the heath conditions of the humans, but it resulted in the development of variable drug/multidrug-resistant strains which are now posing great challenge to cure the diseases. The need for searching novel bioactive compounds having potential therapeutic value resulted in exploration of oceans. Screening diverse fauna and flora in oceans opened new avenues for the development of novel therapeutic agents such as sesquiterpenes, phlorotannins, bromoditerpenes, halogenated furanones, and algal lectin which show effect on a wide range of Gram-negative and positive bacteria. Hence these bioactive compounds can be used as broad spectrum antibiotics, antibacterial, and antifouling agents.

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