Osteoporosis Treatment Marine Algal Compounds

Jayachandran Venkatesan* and Se-Kwon Kim*'t'1

Contents I. Introduction 418

II. Treatment for Osteoporosis 418

III. Marine Algae 419

IV. Marine Compound for Osteoporosis 420

A. Bone mineral density 420

B. Rich mineral extracts of marine algae 420

C. Osteoblast differentiation 420

D. Osteoclast differentiation in osteoporosis 422

V. Conclusion 423 Acknowledgment 424 References 424

Abstract Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases that occur due to imbalance during bone formation and bone resorption. About half of all women over the age of 50 will have a fracture on the hip, wrist, or vertebra. Research and treatment of osteoporosis are challenging for researchers and physicians. There are several types of treatments for osteoporosis including most famous bisphospho-nates, estrogen agonists/antagonists, parathyroid hormone, estrogen therapy, hormone therapy, and recently developed RANKL inhibition. In the recent days, much attention has been paid for marine algal extracts and compounds for osteoporosis treatment. In this chapter, we extensively deal with marine algae compounds and their rich mineral constituents for osteoporosis treatment.

* Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea { Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea 1 Corresponding author: Se-Kwon Kim, E-mail address: [email protected]

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 64 © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

ISSN 1043-4526, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00032-6 All rights reserved.

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