Seaweed as a Source of Novel Nutraceuticals Sulfated Polysaccharides and Peptides

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A. Jimenez-Escrig, E. Gomez-Ordonez, and P. Ruperez1

Contents I. Introduction 326

A. Seaweeds as an underexploited bioresource 326

B. Nutritional assessment of seaweeds 326

II. Seaweeds as a Source of Bioactive Sulfated Polysaccharides 328

A. Preparation of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds 328

B. Biological activity of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds 328

III. Edible Seaweeds as Potential Sources of Bioactive Peptides 330 A. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antihypertensive activities: different approaches 331

IV. Conclusion 334 Acknowledgments 334 References 334

Abstract Seaweeds and seaweed-derived products are underexploited marine bioresources and a source of natural ingredients for functional foods. Nutritional studies on seaweeds indicate that brown and red

Metabolism and Nutrition Department, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos y Nutrición (ICTAN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais 10, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain

1 Corresponding author: P. Ruperez, E-mail address: [email protected]

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 64 © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

ISSN 1043-4526, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00026-0 All rights reserved.

seaweeds possess a good nutritional quality and could be used as an alternative source of dietary fiber, protein, and minerals. Moreover, bioactive sulfated polysaccharides are the main components of soluble fiber in seaweeds and also bioactive peptides can be prepared from seaweed protein. This chapter gives an overview of the main biological properties of sulfated polysaccharides and peptides from brown and red seaweeds. Recent studies have provided evidence that sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds can play a vital role in human health and nutrition. Besides, peptides derived from algal protein are most promising as antihypertensive agents. Further research work, especially in vivo studies, are needed in order to gain a better knowledge of the relation structure-function by which bioactive compounds from seaweeds exert their bioactivity.

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