Marine Algae Against Human Pathogenic Drug Multidrugresistant Strains

Various workers used different types of solvents like acetone, ethyl alcohol, chloroform, ethyl, methanol, acetic acid, and benzene for the extraction of bioactive compounds from the marine algal sources; method of extraction and solvents play an important role in varying degrees of antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Rosell and Srivastava, 1987; Sastry and Rao, 1994; Zheng et al., 2001). Screening 151 marine algal species for antibacterial properties on five bacterial species found that the antibiotic production of the algal species varies with the seasons and also varies within the morphological similar species. The changes in the antibiotic production of the several species are also fluctuated due to the seasonal changes (Hornsey and Hide, 1974). Marine seaweeds Ulva fasciata (green algae) and Hypnea musciformis (red algae) isolated from the southeast and southwest coast of India showed antibacterial activities. Green algae U. Fasciata exhibited broad spectrum antibiotic inhibited B. cereus, E. coli, B. Subtilis, A. hydrophila, V. fischeri, and shrimp pathogen V. harveyi at incubation temperatures 20° and 30° (Selvin and Lipton, 2004).

The methanol extracts of seaweeds isolated from Gulf of Mannar, India, exhibited differential activity on multidrug-resistance bacterial strains E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and S. Aureus, Padina tetra-stromatica, of human urinary tract infections. Stocheospermum marginatum shown strong action against nonmultidrug-resistance bacterial strains. Grateloupia lithophila has shown effect on both multidrug-resistant and nonmultidrug-resistant strains, Caulerpa sp., Gracilaria corticata, and Valoniopsis pachynema exhibited weak activity (Manikandan et al., 2011). Methanolic extracts of 26 marine seaweeds isolated from Morocco, Mediterranean coast are tested against the three Gram-positive E. faecalis (ATCC-29212), E. faecalis (ATCC-29213) and two Gramnegative bacteria E. coli, Klebseila, Pneumonia all the tested seaweeds shown the activity against the bacteria. Few types of seaweed exhibited the strong activity and few have shown moderate activity. The seaweed H. musciformis shown the broad spectrum antibiotic activity with zone of inhibition ranged from 10 to 35 mm (Rhimou et al., 2010). Study conducted on 32 marine algal isolates from Karachi, Pakistan showed the promising results against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, human, animal, plant pathogens, and common pests. Codium sha-meelii and Iyengaria stellata have shown the action against the three Gram-positive bacteria; Colpomenia sinuosa on three Gram-negative/ positive bacteria; Cystoseira indica on two Gram-positive/negative bacteria; Sargassum ilicifolium shown action against two Gram-negative bacteria. In Rhodophyta, Botryocladia leptopoda has shown action against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, Champia compressa has shown action only on two Gram-negative bacteria (Muhammad and Shameel, 2004). Crude methanol extracts of Saragassum cinereum (brown algae) antibacterial activity against the staphylococcus aureus, P. aerugi-nosa, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella species has shown the high activity against them which indicates the potential use in medical application (Divya et al., 2011).

Several species of marine brown algae Plocamium telfairiae, Gelidium amansii, Plocamium sp., P. Hamatum, Lessonia nigrescens Bory, Sargassum ringgoldianum have shown antimycobacterial activity (Table 6.1; Collins and Franzblau, 1997; Ikekawa et al., 1968; Kamimoto, 1956; Konig et al., 1999).

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