Marine Algae In Controlling Biofilm Antifouling Bacteria

Marine algae are susceptible for various types of disease from the surrounding bacteria; in order to protect from these, they developed the defense mechanisms to combat the bacterial diseases by producing the various secondary metabolites like halogenated furanones, these secondary metabolites are generally found on the surface of the algae. Delisea pulchra (red algae) has shown the antifouling action (Dworjanyn and Steinberg, 1999; Givskov et al., 1996). However, Bonnemaisonia hami-fera (macroalgae) also shown the greater antifouling action against nine diverse strains from five varied bacterial groups (Nylund et al., 2005; Smyrniotopoulos et al., 2003). The compounds isolated from the green algae Caulerpa prolifera have shown the antifouling activity against antifouling bacteria and microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Smyrniotopoulos et al., 2003). Antifouling action of the halogenated furanones can be used for treating the aquatic systems. However, the higher concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 p.M are toxic to various higher organisms like rainbow trout and artemia (Defoirdt et al., 2004; Rasch et al., 2004, 2007). The exact mechanism of action of these algal metabolites is inexplicable (Table 6.2).

TABLE 6.1 Antibacterial activity of marine algae against human pathogenic bacteria

Source

Bioactive compounds

Activity

Laurencia rigida Ecklonia Kurome Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Laurencia majuscule Ulva fasciata Cladophora glomerata

Hypnea musciformis Codium shameelii (chlorophyta) Iyengaria stellata (Phaeophyta) Sargassum ilicifolium Saragassum cinereum

(brown algae) Botryocladia leptopoda

(Rhodophyta) Ecklonia Kurome

Laurencia majuscula Grateloupia lithophila

Cystoseira mediterranea, Enteromorpha linza, Ulva rigida, Gracilaria gracilis Plocamium telfairiae, Gelidium amansii, and G. Capillaries Plocamium sp., P. hamatum Lessonia nigrescens

Bory Sargassum ringgoldianum

Sesquiterpenes

Phlorotannins

Bromoditerpenes

Antibacterial Antibacterial Antibacterial

Halogenated compounds Antibacterial

Methanol extract Methanol extract

Methanol extract Methanol extract

Methanol extract

Methanol extract Methanol extract

Methanol extract

Phloroglucinol, eckol, phlorofucofuroeckol A, dieckol and 8.8' -beckol Elatol, iso-obtusol Methanol extracts

Diethyl ether

Organic extracts

Monoterpenes

Phytosterol saringosterol Saringosterol

Broad spectrum Multidrug resistant bacteria Broad spectrum Gram positive

Gram positive

Gram negative Broad spectrum

Broad spectrum

Antibacterial

Antibacterial Multidrug resistance/ nonmultidrug resistance Broad spectrum antibacterial activity

Antimycobacterial

Antimycobacterial Antimycobacterial

TABLE 6.2 Antifouling activity of marine algae

Source

Bioactive compounds Activity

Activity

Delisea pulchra (red algae)

Halogenated furanones Antifouling

Caulepra prolifera (green algae)

Sesquiterpenoids

Antifouling

Bonnemaisonia hamifera

Halogenated furanones Antifouling

(macroalgae)

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