The actions of CCK are mediated by at least two distinct receptors whose existence has been confirmed by molecular cloning. Nevertheless, the large variety of functions mediated by CCK receptors, as well as pharmacological studies, cleary suggests the existence of heterogeneity for these receptors.
The physiological and pathophysiological implications of these receptors can now be further investigated in CCK2 receptor deficient mice obtained through gene targeting, and in OLETF rats, which have no functional CCK1 receptors. It is believed that several potential clinical applications with selective agonists and/or antagonists could be developed in a near future.
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