In the CNS, GPCRs are at last emerging from the shadow cast by voltage-dependent/ ionotropic paradigms for neuronal information transfer. In addition, to gaining a better understanding of the traditional 'neuromodulatory' roles of GPCRs, we are beginning to see the first clear examples of GPCR regulation of independent, dynamic biochemical signalling networks involving not only short-term information transfer, but also bringing about adaptative changes involving regulation at the level of gene transcription. Many important challenges lie ahead if we are to gain a comprehensive understanding of how GPCR signalling specificity might be encoded in neurons with respect to the coordinate regulation multiple downstream effectors.

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