Building gene models can be a difficult procedure. Public automated genome annotation projects are now underway, and are improving constantly. These include the ENSEMBL annotation effort and NCBIs genome view. These combine prediction tools, EST data, and model organism data to provide exon predictions and genome annotation. The resulting predicted open reading frames can be searched by chromosomal location and also by sequence query directly via the following web sites (http://www.ensembl.org/) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/guide/human/). Once a novel gene has been identified the next task is to characterize the protein sequence in greater depth. The following section describes the bioinformatic tools which can help us achieve this. Many of these tools are useful in enhancing the gene prediction, for instance checking the transmembrane organization of a predicted ORF. Again it is the combination of tools which gives the best results.
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