Originally, on the basis of biochemical and pharmacological criteria, Kebabian and Calne (1979) classified dopamine receptors into Di andD2 types. Di receptors were defined as those stimulating adenylate cyclase activity while D2 receptors inhibited adenylate cyclase activity. The application of molecular biology techniques, however, revealed the existence of more than two subtypes of dopamine receptor. Hence, there are currently five dopamine receptor subtypes known. Based on structural and pharmacological properties, these receptors were subdivided into two families termed D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) (Hartman and Civelli 1997).
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