Antiphospholipid Syndrome And Antiphospholipid Antibodies

Proven Lupus Treatment By Dr Gary Levin

Natural Lupus Treatment System

Get Instant Access

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis, fetal loss and thrombocytopenia in association with elevated titers of circulating auto-antibodies directed against phospholipids, including lupus anticoagulant.1 Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are crucial for diagnosis and represent a very heterogeneous group, as multiple specificities against various phospholipids are found. The anti-cardiolipin ELISA assay, introduced in 1983, is the most established and standardized method for detecting aPL, since other aPL directed to phosphatidylserine, phos-phatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phos-phatidylglycerine, phosphatidylinositol and recently lysobisphosphatidic acid2 have been investigated less frequently. Moreover, in 1990 three independent groups reported the requirement of a protein cofactor, p2 glycoprotein I (p2-GPI), for efficient binding of 'autoimmune' antibodies to the phospholipids, in contrast to 'infectious' aPL recognizing phospholipids alone. Since then, the anti-p2-GPI antibodies have been defined as a population overlapping but distinct from aPL and have been found to be significantly associated with thrombosis and thrombocytopenia occurring in APS. p2-GPI alone was found to be capable of inducing full-blown APS in a mouse model and was consequently proposed as an autoantigen in APS.4

The syndrome is predominantly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or with other autoimmune disorders as secondary APS, or can exist in isolation as primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS). APS manifests with microvascu-lar thrombosis as well as large-vessel occlusion with acute thrombotic episodes, which may involve all organ systems. Involvement of the central nervous

Table 21.1 Neurologic complications in APS

Focal ischemic


Transient ischemic attack1-57


Recurrent stroke1-57

Transverse myelopathy59

Multi-infarct dementia30


Cerebral venous thrombosis61


Was this article helpful?

0 0
Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment