Computerized Assessment

The principal computerized test found useful for determining nicotine effects on cognitive function in adults with ADHD is the Conners continuous performance test (CPT).5,6 To characterize possible effects on other aspects of neurobehavioral function, components of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) battery have also been used simple reaction time, spatial mental rotation, and delayed matching to sample.3435 The Conners CPT has been validated as an assessment tool for...

In Vitro Electrophysiological Approaches

Discussion of electrophysiological methods is presented elsewhere in this volume. In this section our discussion is limited to some general comments on the approach and a summary of major findings. Because nerve endings are too tiny to record from (with the exception of certain calyces41) presynaptic nAChR activity is inferred from a modulation of transmitter release detected as postsynaptic currents. Nicotinic modulation at glutamate and GABA synapses has been the major focus of this...

Abt594

Recently, a derivative of epibatidine, ABT-594 has been developed by Abbott Laboratories as a nicotinic analgesic and, as mentioned earlier, is currently in phase II clinical trials. ABT-594 shows similar affinity to epibatidine at the human a4p2 subtype (Ki of 37 and 42 pM for ABT-594 and epibatidine, respectively), but has 4000 times less activity at the neuromus-cular receptor.77 The systemic administration of ABT-594 produced broad-spectrum antinociceptive activity in preclinical assays of...

The Mnemonic Effects Of Mecamylamine In Monkeys

Administration of nicotine in experimental animals has been reported to facilitate neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission in thalamo-cortical, ascending mesolimbic-dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic pathways.3233 To what extent any of these effects contributes to nicotine's cognitive-enhancing action is not known. However, the concentrations of nicotine required to elicit receptor up-regulation34-36 or increased neurotransmitter release32,37 require M concentrations....

Tourettes Syndrome Nicotine And Animal Models

Tourette's disorder (TD) is a neuropsychiatry disorder with childhood onset that is characterized largely by the expression of sudden, rapid and brief, recurrent, non-rhythmic, stereotyped motor movements (motor tics) and sounds (vocal tics) that are experienced as irresistible, but can be suppressed for varying lengths of time.1 These motoric symptoms range from relatively mild to very severe over the course of a patient's lifetime.23 Most patients with TD also exhibit comorbid neuropsychiatry...

NAChR Localization

While the functional pharmacology approach provides strong evidence for the nicotinic modulation of transmitter release, the limited number of subtype-selective tools and a general lack of knowledge about the subunit composition of native nAChR have constrained the information generated about which nAChR subtypes are involved. Moreover, the precise localization of nAChR (for example in relation to synapses) cannot be addressed. Therefore techniques that map the anatomical localization of nAChR...