Disrupted Maternal Behavior in 5HT2CR Mutant Mice

The prominent expression of 5-HT2CRs in multiple hypothalamic nuclei and over the extended amygdala also suggests that these receptors may play a key role in coordinating maternal-pup interactions. To study this question, Storm and colleagues (Storm et al. 2003) bred female constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mice from crosses of heterozygote 5-HT2CR -/X female and 5-HT2CR -/Y male mice. These females were noted to have normal pup gestation and normal litter size. However, litters raised by constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers demonstrated much diminished survival to weaning compared with litters raised by 5-HT2CR -/X mothers. Multiple potential etiologies were identified that may explain the increased mortality of pups born to constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers. Compared with both heterozygote 5-HT2CR -/X and wild-type mothers, constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers demonstrated decreased placentophagy. Nests constructed by constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers were smaller and less elaborate. In assays of pup retrieval, constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers were far less likely to successfully bring a pup back to the nest. No deficits were noted in mammary gland histology of constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mice or in their milk production; however, these mothers spent significantly less time nursing their pups. Overall, these deficits suggest that constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers may have begun nursing their litters in a less nutritionally replete state compared with heterozygous or wild-type females. Additionally, deficits in nest building, nursing time, and pup retrieval suggest an elevated pup stress level that may have contributed to their increased mortality.

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Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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