Disrupted Maternal Behavior in 5HT2CR Mutant Mice

The prominent expression of 5-HT2CRs in multiple hypothalamic nuclei and over the extended amygdala also suggests that these receptors may play a key role in coordinating maternal-pup interactions. To study this question, Storm and colleagues (Storm et al. 2003) bred female constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mice from crosses of heterozygote 5-HT2CR -/X female and 5-HT2CR -/Y male mice. These females were noted to have normal pup gestation and normal litter size. However, litters raised by constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers demonstrated much diminished survival to weaning compared with litters raised by 5-HT2CR -/X mothers. Multiple potential etiologies were identified that may explain the increased mortality of pups born to constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers. Compared with both heterozygote 5-HT2CR -/X and wild-type mothers, constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers demonstrated decreased placentophagy. Nests constructed by constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers were smaller and less elaborate. In assays of pup retrieval, constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers were far less likely to successfully bring a pup back to the nest. No deficits were noted in mammary gland histology of constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mice or in their milk production; however, these mothers spent significantly less time nursing their pups. Overall, these deficits suggest that constitutive 5-HT2CR -/- mothers may have begun nursing their litters in a less nutritionally replete state compared with heterozygous or wild-type females. Additionally, deficits in nest building, nursing time, and pup retrieval suggest an elevated pup stress level that may have contributed to their increased mortality.

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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