Incidence of D2 DARSS

Prolonged block of DA D2 receptors over a period of weeks, as per antipsychotic treatment, is associated with an increase in D2 receptor number - so that there is a "super-sensitized" response to a D2 agonist after the block is discontinued. D2 DARSS, however, is also observed after repeated treatments with a direct or indirect agonist. For example, repeated treatments with amphetamine result in an exaggerated behavioral effect even if the interval between doses is great enough to account for full metabolism of the previous dose(s). This effect is most notable when treatments are initiated during postnatal ontogenetic development. For example, a single daily low dose of the D2 agonist quinpirole results in exaggerated behavioral responses to quin-pirole into adulthood. Rats display enhanced quinpirole-induced yawning, vertical jumping, locomotor activity, changes in reactivity to pain, and other effects (Kostrzewa et al. 1990, 1991, 1993a, 2004; Kostrzewa and Brus 1991; Brown et al. 2002). Moreover, in rats "primed" with daily quinpirole treatments, an acute dose of amphetamine produced a fivefold increase in DA exocytosis, as indicated by the rise in DA levels in the in vivo microdialysate levels of such rats (Nowak et al. 2001, 2007).

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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