Initial Animal Modeling of TD

Although the association of DA receptor activation and VCM induction is a rational one, there is the realization that TD is not an acute phenomenon; TD is a movement disorder that develops gradually and technically only after long-term treatment with an antipsychotic. To this end, Waddington et al. (Waddington et al. 1983; Waddington 1990) first showed that long-term treatment with a neuroleptic resulted in spontaneous orofacial dyskinesias in rats. Later it was shown that the form and periodicity of these oral dyskinesias were similar to those of humans with tardive dyskinesia (Ellison and See 1989). However, when neuroleptic treatment was discontinued, the orofacial dyskinesias disappeared over an approximate 1-month period - unlike the persistence of TD following discontinuation of neuroleptics in humans (Waddington et al. 1983; Gunne et al. 1982; Mithani et al. 1987; Gunne and Haggstron 1983). Therefore, this rodent model of TD lacked some replicability with the human condition.

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Defeat Drugs and Live Free

Being addicted to drugs is a complicated matter condition that's been specified as a disorder that evidences in the obsessional thinking about and utilization of drugs. It's a matter that might continue to get worse and become disastrous and deadly if left untreated.

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